Halicarnassus

Halicarnassus


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Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city of Caria, located on the Gulf of Cerameicus in Anatolia. According to tradition it was founded by Dorian Greeks of the Peloponnese. The most famous of her sons, the historian Herodotus, wrote that in early times the city participated in the Dorian festival of Apollo at Triopion, but the city's literature and culture appear completely Ionic and Herodotus' own Histories were written in Ionic Greek. Halicarnassus has become linked with the birth of written history as it was the native city of Herodotus, `The Father of History' but, in its time, it was better known as one of the great urban trade centers of Asia Minor. In the modern day the association of Halicarnassus and history is the most common, however. The historian Will Durant notes:

The great achievement of Periclean prose was history. In a sense it was the fifty century that discovered the past, and consciously sought for a perspective of man in time. In Herodotus, historiography has all the charm and vigor of youth (430).

The city, with its large sheltered harbor and key position on the sea routes, became the capital of the small kingdom, the most famous ruler of which was King Mausolus. His wife Artemisia built the great Tomb of Mausolus after his death, the so-called Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Will Durant writes:

The sculptural masterpiece of the period [4th century BCE] was the great mausoleum dedicated to king Mausolus of Halicarnassus. Nominally a satrap of Persia, Mausolus had extended his personal sway over Caria and parts of Ionia and Lycia, and had used his rich revenues to build a fleet and beautify his capital (494).

Under the rule of Artemisia & Mausolus, Halicarnassus underwent a great renewal in architecture & infrastructure as the monarchs wished their city to be the jewel of Anatolia.

Under the rule of Artemisia and Mausolus, the city underwent a great renewal in architecture and infrastructure as the monarchs wished their city to be the jewel of Anatolia. A great wall circuit, public buildings, and a secret dockyard and canal were built as well as many well-ordered roads and temples to the gods.

The city was besieged by Alexander the Great in 334 BCE (the famous Siege of Halicarnassus) where he almost suffered defeat (it would have been his only one) but, at the last minute, his infantry broke the walls and burned the Persian ships. The Persian commander, Memnon of Rhodes, realizing the city was lost, set fire to it and fled. The fire consumed most of the city. Alexander set his ally, Ada of Caria, to rule Halcarnassus and she, in turn, formally adopted him as her son so that his blood-line would always reign in the city he had taken from the Persians.

After Alexander's death, however, rule of the city passed to Antigonus I (311 BCE), Lysimachus (after 301 BCE) and the Ptolemies (281–197 BCE) and was briefly an independent kingdom until 129 BCE when it came under Roman rule. A series of earthquakes destroyed much of the city as well as the great Mausoleum while repeated pirate attacks from the Mediterranean wreaked further havoc on the area.

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Halicarnassus

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Halicarnassus, ancient Greek city of Caria, situated on the Gulf of Cerameicus. According to tradition, it was founded by Dorian Troezen in the Peloponnese. Herodotus, a Halicarnassian, relates that in early times the city participated in the Dorian festival of Apollo at Triopion, but its literature and culture appear thoroughly Ionic. The city, with its large sheltered harbour and key position on the sea routes, became the capital of the small despotate, the most famous ruler of which was a woman, Artemisia, who served under Xerxes in the invasion of Greece in 480 bc . Under Mausolus, when it was the capital of Caria (c. 370 bc ), it received a great wall circuit, public buildings, and a secret dockyard and canal, while its population was swollen by the enforced transference of the neighbouring Lelegians. On the death of Mausolus in 353/352, a monumental tomb, the Mausoleum, considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was built by his widow in the city.

Under Memnon of Rhodes, a commander in Persian service, the city resisted Alexander the Great in 334 bc . It was subject to Antigonus I (311), Lysimachus (after 301), and the Ptolemies (281–197), but thereafter was independent until 129 bc , when it came under Roman rule. In early Christian times it was a bishopric.

The site, extensively excavated in 1856–57 and 1865, retains much of its great wall, remnants of the gymnasium, a late colonnade, a temple platform, and rock-cut tombs. The ancient remains are somewhat overshadowed by the spectacular pile of the castle of the Knights of St. John, founded about ad 1400. The site is occupied by the modern town of Bodrum, Tur.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Living Memory

Historical writers had existed long before Herodotus was born. However, many of them wrote about events that occurred long before their own births, and usually wrote them in the form of epic poems or prose. Also, many of these “historical” accounts were based on oral traditions passed down from one generation to the next and were steeped in the mythologies concerning the intervention of the gods. Homer’s Iliad is a prime example.

Herodotus, on the other hand, wrote about the era he lived in. The would-be historian was born in the year, 484 BC in the Dorian city of Halicarnassus of Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). The city was Greek, religiously and verbally (ancientgreekbattles.com, 2011).

Shortly before his birth, the expanding Persian Empire took over Halicarnassus and then attacked Athens and Sparta in mainland Greece. The powerful Persians were defeated by the two Greek-state confederations. This war would eventually change the fortunes of the Greeks, as well as lead to the slow and eventual decline of the Persian.

Many in Halicarnassus thanked the gods for this victory. However, Herodotus wanted to know how the Greeks accomplished this task.

Another event in his hometown indirectly led him to finding the answers he searched for. He was accused of taking part in an uprising against the Lygdamis, a tyrant who ruled Halicarnassus. As a result, he was exiled to the island of Samos.

Many in Halicarnassus thanked the gods for this victory. However, Herodotus wanted to know how the Greeks accomplished this task.


The Macedonians Suffered 316 Casualties, as well as Incurring Significant Damage to Their Engines.

Surrender of Celerne castle, from 15th century French manuscript Life of Alexander the Great by Quinte Curce (Quintus Curtius)

A few days into the siege, Alexander diverted his attention from the main assault on the city and assembled a mixed force of cavalry, infantry, and missile troops for a special mission. He led the convoy around the city to a road leading to the nearby town of Myndus. After feigning an attack at the western Myndus gate, he marched his army west toward the settlement. An envoy from Myndus had previously sent word to Alexander, promising to turn the town over to the Macedonians. Capturing Myndus would provide another base of operations in the area and enable the Macedonians to place more pressure on the defenders at Halicarnassus. Believing that he could occupy the strategic position without much difficulty, Alexander took along no siege equipment for the mission. Once word of Alexander’s march spread, Memnon hurried reinforcements to Myndus, closing the city gates. Finding his small detachment outmatched, a frustrated Alexander was forced to turn back to camp.

After pounding the walls of Halicarnassus for days, Alexander found that he had made little progress in bringing Memnon’s army to its knees. By this time the Macedonian sappers had completed filling in the moat. With solid footing now available, Alexander ordered his siege engines to prepare for an assault. However, when night fell on the field, a Persian patrol infiltrated Macedonian lines and set fire to many pieces of siege equipment. The startled Alexander managed to organize an effective counterattack. Officers on both sides spurred on their fatigued units, while soldiers fought over the bodies of their fallen comrades. Finally the skirmish ended, but not before the Macedonians had suffered 316 casualties, as well as significant damage to their engines.

The siege dragged on, the pattern of alternating Macedonian attack and Persian repair and counterattack becoming a daily occurrence. The stress of the protracted struggle began to take its toll on both sides. Alexander risked losing control of his fatigued army. One night a number of frustrated Macedonians under the command of Perdiccas got drunk and rushed headlong at the Mylasa gate in a foolish attack. The Persians inside were all too eager to deal with the renegade force and hurried outside to meet them. The ensuing skirmish escalated rapidly into a full-scale engagement as Perdiccas brought up support troops to aid his comrades. Memnon responded in kind, sending out additional defenders to engage the enemy. The Persians gained the advantage—they had quickly amassed a superior number of troops—and burned several more pieces of Macedonian siege equipment. The action ended only when Alexander himself appeared on the scene with additional troops and the Persians retired through the city gate. Memnon and Alexander agreed to a brief truce, just long enough for the Macedonians to gather their numerous dead and wounded from the base of the city walls.

Alexander remained in a difficult position. For over a month his army had hammered away at the defenses of Halicarnassus with little success. The hot, dry summer of western Asia Minor was giving way to autumn, and Memnon’s garrison still sustained an impressive resistance. In some instances, repaired sections of the wall were even stronger than the original walls. The success of the entire Macedonian expedition hung in the balance as its momentum stalled against the strong walls of Halicarnassus. If Alexander were to withdraw, he risked losing prestige in the eyes of both the Persians and the Greeks, and he would leave a key enemy stronghold intact on his western flank. He had no genuine hope of starving out the defenders, who remained well supplied by sea. The Macedonian king had no choice but to redouble his effort to punch through the walls and overthrow the city’s garrison.

In one mass attack on the city’s main gate, a Macedonian force finally threatened to penetrate the walls. A Persian counterattack resulted in a large-scale battle in the shadow of the mighty gate. The Macedonian phalanxes gained the advantage, and the defenders scrambled for the safety of the walls. The fleeing Persians created a human traffic jam on the moat bridge, which gave way under the weight, killing many soldiers. Although Alexander could have followed up this success, he called off the assault because of his men’s fatigue and because he did not want to risk a slaughter inside the walls—he still harbored the faint hope that the Halicarnassian citizens would pressure Memnon to surrender. The day’s battle was the biggest engagement of the siege to that point. Some 1,000 defenders and 40 Macedonians were killed, the latter figure including some of Alexander’s most trusted officers. Alexander remained undeterred in his commitment to capture the city, and his army showed no sign of relenting.

The following morning Memnon held a council of his generals, and the consensus was that they needed to launch an offensive to break the Macedonian siege. A Greek mercenary officer named Ephialtes was selected to lead a handpicked unit of 2,000 infantrymen on a raid against the unsuspecting Macedonian camp. Under cover of darkness on the chosen night, Ephialtes led half of his saboteurs toward the Macedonian camp and ordered the other half to set fire to the remaining siege engines near the city walls. The Macedonians were surprised by the night attack, but a few units were able to form up and engage Ephialtes. A bewildered Alexander emerged from his headquarters and rapidly assessed the situation. He ordered the best of his infantrymen into three phalanxes and instructed additional crews to extinguish the flaming siege equipment. Alexander, on foot, took up position at the head of the formation and advanced on Ephialtes. For once the king could not inspire his men, and the Macedonians could not gain an advantage, their situation made worse by the countless missiles being fired down on them from atop the city walls and from a special 100-foot-high wooden tower constructed for the raid.

When the Macedonian phalanx began to falter, Memnon, sensing victory was at hand, rushed forth from the gate with additional troops. Alexander faced one of the most crucial single moments of the entire Persian expedition, and the young king could not have planned what happened next. A number of Macedonian veterans, men who had long served under Alexander’s father Philip and were exempt from combat duty under Alexander, suddenly emerged on the scene. In a display that rivaled the dramatic flair of Alexander himself, the savvy veterans chided their younger counterparts and rallied the infantry. The inspired Macedonians tightened their ranks and surged forward against Ephialtes’s force. The tide turned swiftly in favor of the Macedonians as the defenders were driven back by the rhythmic push of the Macedonian sarissae and shields. Memnon’s force suffered extensive casualties, with Ephialtes among the slain. Memnon ordered a full retreat, and in the chaotic rush back to the gates, a number of energized Macedonians penetrated the city walls before breaking off the pursuit.

The great night battle was the turning point of the siege. Alexander had been surprised by the enemy assault, and the decisive factor in the victory had been out of his hands. Nevertheless, as the sun rose the next morning, the weary but invigorated Macedonian troops took stock of their situation, which had suddenly improved greatly. The morning following the botched attack, Memnon called another assembly of his generals. It was now October—over two months into the siege—and the Persian high command realized that the defenders, both Persian and Greek, were exhausted. Memnon’s position within the formidable defenses at Halicarnassus had been a strong one. His men had been well supplied and enjoyed superior numbers. Despite these considerable advantages, the defenders failed to hold up against the unrelenting onslaught thrown at them by a determined Macedonian army. The decision of Memnon’s council was to abandon Halicarnassus as they had done at Miletus months earlier.


Alexander the Great

Halicarnassus was an important stop along Alexander III the Great's journey through the ancient world. When he entered the territory of Caria in 334 BCE, Halicarnassus was ruled by Ada of Caria. She surrendered the fortress of Alinda to him and as a reward he handed back control of Halicarnassus to Ada.

Halicarnassus Wall Relief

In return for letting her govern Halicarnassus, Ada formally adopted Alexander as her son. This ensured that upon her death rule would pass without contest to Alexander and he would cement his rule as King of the region.


Halicarnassus: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Greek City and Home to One of the Seven Wonders of the World

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Biography

Herodotus of Halicarnassus was a fifth-century BCE Hellenic traveler and thinker, a student of human beings in all our variety. He is commonly referred to as “the father of history,” an appellation given him by the Roman orator and politician Cicero.

Herodotus’ only book, known to posterity as the Histories, is the first complete, extant prose work from the great intellectual flourishing of fifth-century Greece Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War is the second. In broad terms, the Histories is a rich account of the causes and events of the Persian Wars, the great conflagration between Achaemenid Persia and the free city-states (poleis) of Classical Greece. The work is punctuated by many digressions on the customs (nomoi) of the peoples with whom the expanding Persian empire came into contact, particularly (but not limited to) these peoples’ conceptions of piety. In part, Herodotus traces the growth of the Persian empire itself as well as the history of the Greeks. He also has a strong interest in natural matters such as the characteristics of the Nile River.

Today, we might call Herodotus’ work the study of “culture,” or perhaps of comparative religion. It is important to note, however, that Herodotus was as interested in human nature generally as he was in convention or custom. He believed that we can understand “the human” through the careful study of particular human societies. He therefore takes pains to relay the stories and tales actually told by the peoples about whom he writes. But the Histories is far more than a mere catalogue. The arrangement of the work itself suggests Herodotus’ intention, and the reader is encouraged to think through the logic of the Histories’ many anecdotes and unfolding episodes.

Little is known about the events of Herodotus’ life. The most reliable evidence is contained in his Histories itself. The work’s first line declares the author to be from Halicarnassus, now Bodrum, on the western coast of modern Turkey, and in the fifth century BCE a Greek city under the rule of a Persian satrapy. Herodotus was, therefore, born within the Achaemenid empire about which he writes. By his own account he led a cosmopolitan existence—he clearly travelled widely for the purposes of his studies, although scholars dispute just how widely. He himself says that his travels included sojourns in Egypt, Arabia, and Tyre, where he gathered first-hand material, and he takes pains to distinguish hearsay evidence (which he often relays) from autopsy, or those things that he saw himself. He also suggests, in an account of his dealings with the priests at Thebes, that his own family was illustrious (Book II 143,1) the fact that he was literate also suggests a wealthy background.

Later sources add further details to this picture. The tenth-century CE Byzantine lexicon, the Suda, names his parents as Lyxes and Dryo, citizens of Halicarnassus, and says that he had one brother, Theodorus. The names of both these male relatives appear in contemporary inscriptions from the city. The Suda further states that Herodotus was sent into exile on the island of Samos by the tyrant Lygdamis, and that he subsequently returned and expelled the tyrant from the city, before leaving for the Athenian colony of Thurii in southern Italy. Such biographical details may or may not be accurate. Lygdamis is reliably attested as tyrant of Halicarnassus in an epigraphical source, and the numerous references to Samos in the Histories suggest that Herodotus did have a close connection with the island, lending some credence to this account. Indeed, it may have been on Samos that Herodotus learned the Ionian dialect, in which his Histories are written.

A variant textual tradition in antiquity, supported by Aristotle, among others, ascribes the work to “Herodotus of Thurii” rather than “Herodotus of Halicarnassus.” This may be the origin of the supposed Thurii connection. The internal evidence of the text of the Histories suggests that Herodotus at least visited southern Italy—he sometimes draws comparison with southern Italian examples to explain a point (e.g., IV 99,5)—and it is certainly possible that Herodotus joined the colony, as did other thinkers, such as the sophist Protagoras, who may have drafted its original constitution. It was popularly believed in much of antiquity that Herodotus spent part of his life in Thurii and possibly died there.

Other sources claim that Herodotus spent time in Athens. Eusebius states that Athenians rewarded him for his public recitations in the year 445/4 BCE such performances were common in fifth-century Greece. Herodotus was also linked to the circle of Pericles, the great democratic statesman of fifth-century Athens, and may have been friendly with Sophocles, the tragic playwright. By his own account, he travelled extensively in the cities of mainland Greece, including Delphi, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth. The Suda also claims that Herodotus spent time in the Macedonian court in Pella, where, supposedly, the young Thucydides, who was a member of the aristocracy in nearby Thrace, burst into tears after hearing a declamation of the Histories. This is no doubt apocryphal, but Thucydides himself does obliquely refer to certain Herodotean “errors” in his prefatory Archaeology, and so was aware of his predecessor.

The date of Herodotus’ death is unknown. The latest events mentioned in his book (VII 137,1–3) can be dated to the first two years of the Peloponnesian War (431/30 BCE). It is reasonable to suppose that he ceased writing the Histories shortly after this. Because many Athenians died in the plague of 429, it is sometimes conjectured that he was also its victim (as was Pericles), but this remains speculative. At any rate, he must have died before 413 BCE, because he states in the Histories (IX, 73) that the Spartans never occupied the town of Decelea in northern Attica. This they famously did, on Alcibiades’ advice, in 413 BCE.

Herodotus’ birth date is traditionally given as 484/3 BCE, based on the idea that his fortieth birthday was coincident with the foundation of Thurii. As such, this date is fictional it may, however, be broadly accurate. Herodotus was probably a slightly older contemporary of Socrates and a much older contemporary of Thucydides. The internal evidence of the Histories shows that Herodotus himself had no personal memories of the Persian invasion of 480/79, and had to rely on the testimony of others.


Halicarnassus (334 BCE)

Halicarnassus (Greek Ἁλικαρνασσός): Greek-Carian city, modern Bodrum in southwestern Turkey.

Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) had been fortified in the mid-fourth century by the satrap of Caria, Maussolus. When Alexander the Great tried to capture the town in the autumn of 334, it turned out to be a very difficult siege because the walls were in excellent condition, and prepared for a war with catapults - a recent invention.

Besides, the Persian garrison was commanded by an excellent general, the Greek mercenary leader Memnon of Rhodes, one of the best generals in the army of the Achaemenid king Darius III Codomannus. The garrison also prepared surprise attacks. For example, during one of Alexander's attacks on the northern wall, enemy soldiers rushed forward from the Myndus gate and attacked the Macedonian right flank. The discipline of the veterans in Alexander's army prevented a catastrophe.

Map of the siege of Halicarnassus

The most important reason for Alexander's lack of success was the fact that the Macedonians did not have a navy, whereas the Persians could reinforce Halicarnassus whenever they wanted. Starving the city was impossible, and Alexander must soon have regretted his decision to attack the city. Essentially, he was storming walls that he could not storm without the loss of many soldiers' lives, against an enemy that could reinforce itself easily, and could leave the city when it thought it needed to.

However, the Macedonians were able to take the town after an attack through the valley on the right hand side of this picture. The acropolis (on the hill) and the lower city were captured, and this was presented as sufficient victory to move on. However, the citadel, located on the island from which this picture was made, held out for more than a year. Alexander must have known that his gains could only be called a victory in the tactical sense of the word he had lost several months and knew that the strategic initiative had passed to the Persians. Darius III was now raising an army in the east, whereas the Persian navy could was not blocked from entering the Aegean Sea.


Mục lục

Lịch sử sớm Sửa đổi

Việc thành lập thành phố Halicarnassus hiện đang được nhiều nhà sử học truyền thống bình luận rất khác nhau, nhưng đa số họ đồng ý và cho rằng thành phố này là một thuộc địa của người Dorian. Người ta tìm thấy những tư liệu khắc trên đồng tiền của thành phố cổ, chẳng hạn như người đứng đầu của Medusa, Athena, Poseidon, hoặc cây đinh ba, các sự hỗ trợ từ các thành phố mẹ là Argos và Troezen [1] . Những cư dân ở đây đã xuất hiện và đưa Athes, con của thần Poseidon lên ngôi vua và sáng lập thành phố này. Strabo có đề cập đến sự kiện này, gọi vua với danh hiệu là Antheadae. Tên Carian cho thành phố Halicarnassus đã được ​​xác định với chữ "Alosδkarnosδ".

Vào thời kỳ đầu Halicarnassus đã là một thành viên của tổ chức thị quốc (Hexapolis) của người Dorian, bao gồm Kos, Cnidus, Lindos, Kameiros và Ialysus (một thành phố nhỏ nằm trên đảo Rhodes), nhưng thành phố này sớm bị loại trừ khi một trong những công dân của mình, Agasicles, đã mang về giải thưởng mà ông đã giành được trong trò chơi Triopian và giữ luôn, thay vì cống hiến nó theo phong tục Apollo Triopian. Cuối thế kỷ VI TCN, Caria được thống nhất dưới thời Lygdamis I (520 - 484 TCN). Đầu thế kỷ V TCN, Halicarnassus cường thịnh dưới sự thống trị của Nữ hoàng Artemisia I xứ Caria (480 - 460 TCN)(còn được gọi là Artemisia xứ Halicarnassus [2] ), người được xem như vị chỉ huy hải quân tài ba nhất trong trận chiến vịnh Salamis với quân Hy lạp. Pisindalis, con trai và người kế nhiệm của bà, ít được biết đến, nhưng Lygdamis II, con trai bà kế ngôi trong những năm 460 - 454 TCN, là một kẻ bạo chúa nổi tiếng. Dưới thời ông ta, nhà thơ Panyasis đã bị sát hại và cùng lúc đó Herodotus, nhà sử học người Halicarnassian nổi tiếng nhất, rời bỏ thành phố quê hương của mình (khoảng 454 trước Công nguyên sau khi cùng với người ủng hộ minh tham gia lật đổ Lygdamis II).

Triều đại Hekatomnid Sửa đổi

Hecatomnus trở thành vua đầu tiên của Caria, một phần thuộc địa của Đế chế Ba Tư, cai trị từ 391 - 377 trước Công nguyên và thiết lập triều đại Hekatomnid. Ông có ba người con trai là Mausolus, Idrieus và Pixodarus - tất cả đều lần lượt lên nắm chính quyền Caria và hai con gái, Artemisia và Ada, những người đã kết hôn với 2 anh em là Mausolus và Idrieus.

Mausolus dời đô từ Mylasa đến Halicarnassus. Người dân của ông đã xây dựng thành phố này thành một cảng biển lớn, sử dụng cát làm vữa để làm đê chắn sóng biển ở phía trước của cảng biển này. Trên mặt đất, họ đã mở đường phố, quảng trường, và xây dựng nhà cửa cho người dân ở. Ở một bên của cảng biển, cư dân đã xây dựng cung điện cho Mausolus ở một vị trí mà ông từ đây có thể trông ra biển và đất liền, quan sát kẻ thù từ xa nếu chúng có tấn công thì sẽ bảo vệ. Đồng thời, họ cũng đã xây tường thành rất cao với nhiều tháp canh, một nhà hát theo kiểu Hy lạp và một đền thờ để thờ Ares - thần chiến tranh người Hy lạp.

Artemisia và Mausolus đã dành một lượng lớn tiền thuế để tôn tạo thành phố. Họ đã dựng tượng, đền thờ và các tòa nhà lấp lánh bằng đá cẩm thạch. Khi ông qua đời năm 353 trước Công nguyên, em gái, vợ ông và người kế nhiệm, Artemisia II xứ Caria, bắt đầu xây dựng một ngôi mộ tuyệt vời cho anh trai và mình trên một ngọn đồi nhìn xuống thành phố. Bà qua đời năm 351 trước Công nguyên (theo Cicero Tusculan Disputations 3,31). Theo Pliny "già" thì các thợ thủ công Hy lạp tiếp tục làm việc trên các ngôi mộ sau cái chết của người bảo trợ của họ, "xem xét rằng đó là cùng một lúc một đài tưởng niệm cho sự nổi tiếng của mình và nghệ thuật của nhà điêu khắc," hoàn thành năm 350 trước Công nguyên. Đây là ngôi mộ của Mausolus đã được biết đến như là Lăng mộ, một trong bảy kỳ quan của thế giới cổ đại.

Sau Artemisia II, người anh trai của bà là Idrieus (351 - 344 TCN) và vợ của ông, Ada đã kế nhiệm rất thành công và tiếp tục hoàn thành khu Lăng mộ mà người tiền nhiệm còn làm dang dở. Về sau Ada bị một người anh trai khác là Pixodarus soán ngôi vào năm 340 trước Công nguyên. Sau cái chết của Pixodarus, người con trai của ông là Orontobates người Ba Tư, đã nhận chức satrapy xứ Caria từ tay vua Darius III của Ba Tư.

Alexander Đại đế và Ada của Caria Sửa đổi

Khi Alexander Đại đế tiến vào Caria trong 334 TCN, mặc dù các satrapy của Ba Tư là Orontobates và Memmon xứ Rhodes ra sức chống lại, nhưng Ada II, con gái của Pixadorus và là người sở hữu thành quốc trên đã vì ngôi vua mà đầu hàng. Sau khi chiếm lấy Halicarnassus, Alexander đã trao lại chính quyền của Caria cho Ada, đến lượt mình, Ada chính thức thông qua Alexander như là chồng của mình, bà tuyên bố một cách đảm bảo rằng các quy tắc kế ngôi của Caria sẽ được thông qua vô điều kiện cho ông sau cái chết của bà. Trong cuộc bao vây của Halicarnassus, thành phố đã bị phá hủy do cuộc rút lui của người Ba Tư. Và ông đã không thể vào thành, Alexander đã bị buộc phải phong tỏa thành phố này. Các di tích này thành và hào nước bây giờ là một điểm thu hút khách du lịch ở Bodrum.

Lịch sử muộn Sửa đổi

Sau khi đế quốc Alexander tan rã, vùng đất này rơi vào tay của Ptolemaios, một vị tướng tài của Alexander. Một tài liệu thời đó viết rằng, người dân ở nơi này đã xây dựng một sân vận động thể thao cho Ptolemaios. Halicarnassus không bao giờ hồi phục hoàn toàn từ những thảm họa của cuộc bao vây, và Cicero mô tả nó như là gần như bỏ hoang. Một nghệ sĩ theo phong cách Baroc là Johann Elias Ridinger đã mô tả một số giai đoạn của cuộc bao vây và các nơi trong một tác phẩm khắc đồng rất lớn, thế nhưng chỉ có hai tác phẩm tồn tại đến ngày nay thể hiện được toàn bộ thời kỳ Alexander xâm chiếm thành phố này.

Các vị vua của Halicarnassus:

  1. Nomion
  2. Amisodarus (thế kỷ XII TCN), chết trong trận chiến thành Troy (1193 - 1183 TCN)
  3. Atymnius
  4. Miletus
  5. Kaunos (thế kỷ X TCN)
  6. Kar
  7. Lydus
  8. Mysus
  9. Harpagus (546 - ? TCN)
  10. Lygdamis I (500 - 490 TCN)
  11. Knidos (490 - 480 TCN)
  12. Artemisia I (480 - 465 TCN)
  13. Lygdamis II (465 - 454 TCN)
  14. Tissaphernes (413 - 395 TCN)
  • Triều đại Hekatomnid
  1. Hecatomnus (395 - 377 TCN)
  2. Mausolus (377 – 353 TCN)
  3. Artermisia II (353 - 351 TCN)
  4. Idrieus (351 - 344 TCN)
  5. Ada I (344 - 340 TCN)
  6. Pixodarus (340 - 335 TCN)
  7. Orontobates (335 - 334 TCN)
  8. Ada II (335 - 334 TCN)
  9. Alexander (334 - 323 TCN)
  10. Asander (323 - 320 TCN)
  11. Antigonus (320 - 301 TCN)
  12. Lysimachos (301 - 281 TCN)

Các phế tích thành phố hiện nay đã chiếm một phần lớn diện tích thành phố Bodrum. Các phế tích bức tường thành cổ xưa còn tồn tai ở gần nhà người dân, vị trí các ngôi đền, các công trình công cộng được bảo vệ một cách chắc chắn. Các di tích của khu Lăng mộ ngày xưa đã được phục hồi rất đáng kể vào năm 1857 bởi Charles Newton, và đã dần hoàn thiện. Việc phục dựng bao gồm 5 phần - tầng hầm hoặc bục cao, một pteron hoặc một số bộ phận (gọi là lớp vỏ bọc) để che chắn các cột trụ, một kim tự tháp, một cái bệ và một nhóm chiến xa có diện tích 114 feet 92, được gia cố lại bằng đá xanh, đá cẩm thạch hoặc chạm khắc bằng sừng bò(?). Quanh chân thành, các nhà khảo cố bắt đầu xử lý các tượng. Pteron bao gồm (theo Pliny) có 36 cột Ionic được sắp xếp trật tự, kèm theo một cena vuông. Giữa các cột có thể dựng lên một bức tượng. Trong lúc phục hồi, người ta đã khai quật tiếp và phát hiện nhiều phù điêu chiến binh Hy lạp và Amazon. Ngoài ra, người ta cũng tìm thấy nhiều mảnh gốm vỡ có khắc về đời sống của các loài động vật, các kỵ binh, có thể chúng thuộc kiểu nghệ thuật điêu khắc pedimental. Phía trên pteron có kim tự tháp, tiến lên 24 bậc thang thì đến một đỉnh hoặc bệ của thành.

Trên đỉnh thành, người ta phát hiện một cỗ chiến xa của Mausolus và các người đanh chiến xa, cùng với bức tượng của ông. Bức tượng của Mausolus cao 9,9 feet(?) (hiện đặt ở Bảo tàng Anh), mà phần chân tóc không rơi xuống trán, tóc rất dày ở mỗi bên khuôn mặt và xuống gần đến vai, râu rất ngắn và có vẻ gần gũi, khuôn mặt vuông vắn (hình chữ điền) và lớn, mắt nằm rất sâu dưới lông mày và nhô ra, miệng thì có vẻ như đang suy nghĩ điềm tĩnh để giải quyết vấn đề. Tất cả mọi phục hồi đó được thực hiện bởi Pullan và Newton, và có nhiều lỗi nhỏ xảy không đáng kể. Một kiến trúc sư thời ấy là Oldfield, mặc dù rất ưa thích sự nhẹ nhàng của nó (khu Lăng như "lơ lửng trong không trung"), phần còn lại đã được những người kế sau đó phục hồi hoàn chỉnh. Vào năm 1900, một kiến trúc sư kỳ cựu người Đức, F. Adlers đã công bộ một tác phẩm nói về công trình kiến trúc cổ xứ này.


Provenance

11 June 1861: 'Ordered to purchase C. T. Newton's Halicarnassus, Cnidus & Branchidae £12.12.0.' (RA Council Minutes, XII, 32). Day & Son was paid £12.12.0. during the first quarter of 1862 which suggests Council's approval of this purchase was retroactive (see RA Accounts, Treasurer's Quarterly Abstract of Bills, RAA/TRE/1/4).

Another copy was subsequently presented by the Trustees of the British Museum (acknowledged 4 November 1863, RA Council Minutes, XII, 153).


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