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BORN: 1819 in Ballston Spa, NY.
DIED: 1893 in Mendham, NJ.
CAMPAIGNS: Fort Sumpter, Second Bull Run, South Mountain,
Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg.
Abner Doubleday was born in Ballston Spa, New York, on June 26, 1819. Graduating from the US Military Academy in 1842, he served in the Mexican War under Gen. Zachary Taylor, who later became President of the US. In the years before the Civil War, Doubleday fought in various conflicts with Native Americans. In 1861, he was stationed at Fort Sumter, at the rank of captain, and is credited by some with having shot the Union's first shot to defend the fort. He became major of the 17th Infantry, and was appointed a brigadier general in February of 1862. He led troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run; as well as the Battles at South Mountain, the Antietam and Fredericksburg. At Gettysburg, he took command when Maj. Gen. John J. Reynolds was killed, and held the Union troops in their position. Despite his success at Gettysburg; he was given the nickname "Forty-eight Hours" Doubleday, and was removed from command. Doubleday went to Washington and wrote what was called the "longest battle report of the Union army," in an attempt to vindicate himself from his professional humiliation. He was not in active service for the rest of the war, but remained in the Regular Army until his retirement in 1873. He was rumored to have originated the game of baseball. Doubleday died on January 26, 1893, in Mendham, New Jersey.



During the Seminole Wars, General Abner Doubleday (often credited with inventing baseball) blazed a trail between Fort Lauderdale and Fort Dallas on the Miami River. This Military Trail crossed over the limestone bridge, traversing the fresh water creek flowing from the Everglades to Biscayne Bay. In 1895, Henry Flagler's railroad reached Arch Creek as it expanded southward, bringing a steady stream of visitors and settlers, largely from east coast states. ff

The first families to settle the area planted tomatoes and pineapples. A railroad depot was established in 1903. Soon after, a packing plant, a sawmill, a post office and a school were erected as the town began to grow. By 1910, the area was a popular place for tourists and community gatherings. The "shell house" sold souvenirs, postcards and refreshments. On weekends, families from many miles away would attend barbecues with as many as 500 people. "Dad" Wiggins, the self-proclaimed best barbecue chef in Florida, would start slow-cooking large amounts of meat and families would bring baked goods, side dishes and desserts while kids played along the banks of the creek. By 1912, the community included eighteen homes, a church, a general store, a blacksmith shop, and two tomato packing houses. [2]

By 1920, the population of Arch Creek had grown to 307. The Biscayne Canal was dug in 1924 to reduce flooding of farmland. During the Florida land boom of the 1920s, portions of the community were subdivided and sold to northern tourists as residential lots. On February 5, 1926, the incorporated Town of Miami Shores was established by a vote of 38 registered voters. A destructive hurricane in September 1926 brought land sales to a halt. However, proceeds of a $287,000 bond issue were used to build a new city hall in 1928. The Arch Creek school burned down in 1927 and was replaced in 1928 by the W.J. Bryan school, which is still in operation. [2]

The town kept the name of "Miami Shores" until 1931. In 1952 it was incorporated into the City of North Miami.

In 1957, the first of many threats against the future of the natural bridge materialized. The bridge was endangered by a plan to drain low-lying areas as part of a flood prevention program. The Army Corps of Engineers wanted to blow up the bridge, or re-route the creek. A 1957 newspaper article announced that "the bridge must be sacrificed for better drainage of the area." Protests from members of the local Audubon Society, the Historical Association of Southern Florida and the Dade Conservation Council prevented any of this destructive action.

Things remained quiet until the 1970s, when Arch Creek became the property of the Chrysler Corporation. Their plans called for the construction of an automobile showroom, and a new and used car agency. In 1972, Chrysler requested a zoning change from the City of North Miami, which would have allowed them to pave the area and build a garage on the property. Vigorous opposition came from the Tropical Audubon Society, the Miami-West Indian Archaeological Society, the Keystone Point Homeowners' Association, and the members of the Arch Creek Trust. After almost a year, of intense lobbying the State of Florida agreed to purchase the land for a state park. The State's Land Acquisition Trust allocated $822,000 to buy 7.9 acres (32,000 m 2 ) of property east of the Creek.

A group of local citizens, who later formed the organization Arch Creek Trust, went to Tallahassee in February 1973, to finalize the agreement. On the night they returned, the natural bridge collapsed and fell into the creek. Rumors of sabotage ran through the community, and the Metro-Dade Police Bomb Squad was called out. Nothing was discovered, and experts generally agreed later that the fall was probably due to constant vibrations from passing trains, or erosion, or just old age and decay. In the years that followed, there were various efforts to restore the bridge, clear the property of trash and save additional land in the area.

The porous oolitic (pronounced oh-a-li-tic) limestone bridge was laced with roots from the oak trees growing on both banks of the creek, and likely those roots were what was holding the rock together. A number of trees near both ends of the bridge were removed, thus killing the roots. Then in order to keep vehicular traffic from using the bridge it was blocked off by boring a row of large holes through the road at both ends of the bridge, and standing discarded wooden railroad ties in the holes. When the bridge collapsed it broke along the two rows of "perforations" drilled for the ties. [ citation needed ] In March 2018, FIU Biscayne Bay Campus proposed to pave it as an additional road access to cars and allow another way to campus for first responders in case of an emergency, in light of the Parkland school shooting. However, despite the proposal passing in senate, it has faced strong protests from people who want to protect the reserve. [3]

In 1978 Dade County leased the land from the State of Florida and began making plans to turn it into a passive recreation facility. Clean-up crews appeared, and construction started on a small museum and nature study center. A nature trail was constructed in the hammock area by the Youth Conservation Corps. In addition, they planted over 500 trees. The Arch Creek Park was formally dedicated on April 25, 1982. Today, Arch Creek is an 8-acre (32,000 m 2 ) site at the junction of N.E. 135th Street and Biscayne Boulevard, and offers many opportunities for botanical, historical and archaeological study. It has a museum/nature center modeled after an early Florida pioneer home, displaying Indian artifacts dug from the grounds, and live animals from the nearby hammock. Remains of the original coontie mill are still visible across the creek, and the Park exists as the only preserved archaeological site in the County.

In 1992, Arch Creek Trust and the Trust for Public Lands worked to acquire an additional 1.5 acres (6,100 m 2 ) at the northern end of the park, bringing the total size of the park to 9.4 acres (38,000 m 2 ). Funding was provided by the Environmentally Endangered Lands (EEL) Program. In 1994 the park received a grant to add a Butterfly Garden, on this new site, using native butterfly-attracting plants.

There are year-round activities at the park. Guided trail walks are held on the weekends, and many Miami-Dade County students visit on a regular basis.

Family tree of Abner DOUBLEDAY

Doubleday was born in Ballston Spa, New York, in a small house on the corner of Washington and Fenwick Streets. The family all slept in the attic loft of the one-room house. His Doubleday grandfather, also named Abner, had fought in the American Revolutionary War. His maternal grandfather joined the Army at 14 and was a mounted messenger for George Washington. His father, Ulysses F. Doubleday, fought in the War of 1812, published newspapers and books, and represented Auburn, New York for four years in the United States Congress. Abner spent his childhood in Auburn and later was sent to Cooperstown to live with his uncle and attend a private preparatory high school. Abner practiced as a surveyor and civil engineer for two years before entering the United States Military Academy in 1838. He graduated in 1842, 24th in a class of 56 cadets, and was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery. One of the persistent legends of baseball history is that Doubleday invented the game in 1839, although he was in West Point at the time.

© Copyright Wikipédia authors - This article is under licence CC BY-SA 3.0 .

Geographical origins

The map below shows the places where the ancestors of the famous person lived.

Inventor of Baseball? [ edit ]

Contrary to a once-widely promoted theory that Abner Doubleday invented baseball (presumably in 1839), there is no evidence that he did other than the testimony of one man decades after the fact. Doubleday, in fact, never claimed that he did. The legend of Doubleday's invention was itself an invention of Al Spalding, a former star pitcher who had become a sporting goods manufacturer. Throughout the second half of the 19th century, debates raged over the origins of baseball. To end the arguments and speculation, Spalding organized a panel in 1907, the Mills Commission. The panel consisted of Spalding, two United States Senators (one a former National League president), two other former National League presidents, and two other former stars turned sporting goods entrepreneurs (George Wright and Alfred Reach). The final report entailed three sections: a summary written by Spalding of the panel's findings, a letter by John M. Ward supporting the panel, and a dissenting opinion by Henry Chadwick. The research methods were, at best, dubious. It was not history Spalding was after, but the perfect story: baseball was invented in a quaint rural town that lacked foreigners and lacked industry by a young man who later went on to graduate from West Point, and be a hero in the Mexican-American War, American Civil War, and in wars against Indians.

Spalding's summary concluded that baseball had been invented by Doubleday in Cooperstown in 1839 that Doubleday had invented the word baseball, designed the diamond, indicated fielder positions, wrote down the rules and the field regulations. However, no written records from 1839 or the 1840s have ever been found to corroborate these claims nor could Doubleday be questioned, because he had died in 1893. The primary source for the panel's conclusions was the 1907 testimony of Abner Graves, a five-year-old resident of Cooperstown in 1839. Graves, however, never mentioned a diamond, positions or the writing of rules. Graves' reliability as a witness is questionable as he was later convicted of murdering his wife and spent his final days in an asylum for the criminally insane. To further cloud the panel's findings, Doubleday was not in Cooperstown in 1839. He was enrolled in West Point and there are no records of any leave time. A.G. Mills, a lifelong friend of Doubleday's, had never heard Doubleday mention inventing baseball.

Shortly before the Doubleday myth was promulgated, historians began to question it. A major blow to the legend was a book by historian Robert Henderson on the history of bat and ball games, published in 1947, which documented baseball's older origins and links to games played in England earlier.

At his death, Doubleday left a considerable supply of letters and papers, none of which describe baseball, or give any suggestion that Doubleday considered himself a prominent person in the evolution of the game. An encyclopedia article about Doubleday published in 1911 makes no mention of the game.

As noted elsewhere in the text, versions of baseball rules have since been found in publications that significantly predate the alleged invention in 1839.

Jeff Idelson of the Baseball Hall of Fame has stated, "Baseball wasn't really born anywhere," meaning that the evolution of the game was long and continuous and has no clear, identifiable single origin."

Some or all content from this article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Origins of baseball".

Doubleday, Abner (1819&ndash1893)

Abner Doubleday, military officer, son of Ulysses F. and Hester (Donnelly) Doubleday, was born at Ballston Spa, New York, on June 26, 1819. He attended school at Auburn and Cooperstown, where he prepared for a career in civil engineering. A long-standing tradition claimed that he originated the game of baseball, but recent scholarship has established that he played no role in the history of the sport. He worked as a surveyor from 1836 to 1838 and graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1842. He served under Gen. Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War. In 1852 he married Mary Hewitt of Baltimore.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, Doubleday fired the first Union gun in defense of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861. He was promoted later to major general of volunteers and fought in many battles, including the second battle of Manassas, Sharpsburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, before a transfer took him to Washington, D.C. After the war he was promoted to colonel in the regular army and transferred to California, where he obtained the charter for the first San Francisco cable street railway. By December 1869, before any significant construction got under way, he had sold his interests and become colonel of the all-black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry regiment in Texas.

Doubleday did not assume his new duties until April 1871. At that time headquarters of the Twenty-fourth Infantry was at Fort McKavett, on the San Saba River in what is now Menard County. Regiments in Texas at the time rarely assembled but were scattered among the western frontier posts. In 1871 companies of Doubleday's Twenty-fourth were stationed in several of the more remote posts in West Texas, including forts Bliss, Clark, Davis, Duncan, McKavett, Quitman, and Stockton. They did little fighting, but Doubleday kept busy traveling between posts and overseeing general police duties. He ordered repairs, supervised the improvement of sanitary conditions, and inspected facilities. In August 1872, acting on orders, he transferred his headquarters to Fort Brown in the Rio Grande valley. From there he scattered his troops by companies among forts along the river.

After he became seriously ill of a stomach disorder Doubleday applied for and received an extended medical leave. He left Texas in June 1873, and because his condition did not improve, in December he retired from the army he then made his home in Mendham, New Jersey. He died in 1893 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Connection to baseball

In the United States, General Doubleday is widely called the "father of baseball," and in 1939 he was celebrated in a centenary at Cooperstown, New York, home of the Baseball Hall of Fame. Cooperstown is supposedly the location where Doubleday introduced the game at Doubleday Field. In fact, Doubleday never claimed to have any particular association with the game. Linking the well-known General to the foundation of the American national past-time seems to have been a publicity stunt by sporting goods manufacturer Albert Spalding. For more complete coverage of this topic, see the "Origins of baseball" in Wikipedia, where a section is devoted to the "Abner Doubleday myth." Δ]


Many of the Civil War&rsquos senior officers of the Union and Confederate armies learned to fight in Florida during the Second and Third Seminole Wars (1835-1842, 1855-1858). Here are just a few who served in Florida:

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Major Robert Anderson, USA (1805-1871)
Anderson graduated West Point in 1825 Served in Black Hawk War of 1832 Fought at the Battle of Loxahatchee January 24, 1838, Second Seminole War (1835-1842) helped construct a military trail from Fort Jupiter to the NEw River and establish Fort Lauderdale taught at West Point commanded Union forces at Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina when South Carolina batteries fired on the fort starting the Civil War on April 12, 1861 Surrendered Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861 Retires from army with rank of brigadier general in 1863 Returned to Fort Sumter in 1865 to raise the U.S. flag over the old fort on April 14, 1865, the same day President Lincoln is shot.

Major General Abner Doublday.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Major General Abner Doubleday, USA (1819-1893)
A West Point graduate (1842), Doubleday serves in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) promoted to captain and serves at Fort Dallas (Miami, FL) during Third Seminole War (1855-1858) Stationed at Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina under Major Robert Anderson is said to have fired the first salvo in response the Confederate bombardment of the fort on April 12, 1861. In 1870, while station in San Francisco, Doubleday and several partners, are granted a franchise by the city for the first cable car system. He is wrongly credited as the father of baseball.

Major General Jubal Early.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Major General Jubal Early, CSA (1816-1894)
He is a graduate of West Point (1837) serves in an artillery unit during Second Seminole War resigns but joins a Virginia Volunteer unit during the Mexican-American War (1847-1848) during the Civil War, he serves under Robert E. Lee and rises to the rank of lieutenant general and participated at the Battle of Gettysburg at the end of the war, he escapes to Canada but retuned in 1868 when President Andrew Johnson pardons him.

Brigadier General William Harney.

Courtesy National Archives.

Brigadier General William S. Harney, USA (1800-1889)
Commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army in 1818 served in the First Seminole War During the Second Seminole War, he was a lieutenant colonel leading the Second Dragoons participated in the Mexican-American War in the 1850s fought the Sioux defeating them at the Battle of Blue Water at the beginning of the Civil War, he was commander of the Department of the West, St. Louis, Missouri, and one of only four generals in the regular army relieved of his command in 1861 because of close Confederate &ldquoattachments&rdquo he retired in 1863 and died in Orlando in 1889.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

General Joseph E. Johnston, CSA (1807-1891)
Johnston graduated from West Point in 1829 and was in the same class as Robert E. Lee. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the artillery, participated in the Black Hawk War of 1832, and served in Florida during the Second Seminole War. He resigned in 1837 and became civilian topographical engineer. Johnston accompanied a joint army and navy reconnaissance of the Loxahatchee River under the command of Navy Lieutenant Levin Powell. On January 15, 1838, the force of 80 men clashed with a large force of Seminole warriors on the Loxahatchee River. The Seminoles routed the soldiers and sailors. Johnston took charge fighting a rear guard action saving the engagement from becoming a massacre. He received a head wound that left a scar and it was said that he had &ldquono less than 30 bullet holes in the clothes.&rdquo He rejoined the army as a first lieutenant in the Corps of Topographic Engineers. During the Mexican-American War, he was wounded twice. He was promoted to brigadier general in 1860. Johnston resigned joining the Confederate Army as a brigadier general and a year later he was promoted to full general. He was the highest-ranking U.S. regular army officer to leave the U.S. Army. Johnston was wounded at Seven Pines, commanded the Army of Tennessee fighting Sherman, was relieved of duty, and then placed back in command finally surrendering to Sherman in April 1865 in North Carolina. He was a pallbearer at Sherman&rsquos funeral and did not wear a hat out of respect. Johnston got pneumonia and died within a few weeks.

Major General George Meade.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Major General George G. Meade, USA (1815-1872)
Meade graduated West Point in 1835 and served at Fort Brooke, Tampa, Florida, during Second Seminole War (1835-1842) resigns and works as a civilian with Corps of Topographical Engineers later receives commission in the Corps as a lieutenant serves in Mexican-American War (1846-1848) designed the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse during Civil War, he is severely wounded at the Battle of Glendale and he is most remembered for defeating General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton, CSA (1814-1881)
Pemberton graduated West Point in 1837 and was commissioned an officer in the artillery he served fought at the Battle of Loxahatchee in January 1838 during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) fought against the Cherokees and participated in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) he once again returned to Florida during the Third Seminole War (1855-1858) Joined the Confederate army and is most remembered as the commander of Vicksburg when General Ulysses S. Grant&rsquos Union troops laid siege to the city he was branded a traitor by southerners for surrendering the city he as inspector general of ordinance in Richmond when the South surrendered.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Brigadier General Truman Seymour, USA (1824-1891)
A West Point graduate (1846), Seymour serves in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) is an instructor at West Point and serves in Florida during the Third Seminole War he is stationed at Fort Sumter under the command of Major Robert Anderson when Civil War starts is the ill-fated commander who attacked Fort Wagner, South Carolina, sending in the all black 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment he is wounded during the attack defeated by Confederate forces at the Battle of Olustee, Florida, on February 20, 1864 he is present at the surrender of General Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

General William T. Sherman, USA (1820-1891)
A West Point graduate (1840), Sherman serves at Fort Pierce, Florida, during Second Seminole War (1835-1842), captures Seminole War leader Coacoochee and serves briefly at Fort Lauderdale resigns commission in 1850s but returns to army in 1861 with the rank of colonel during Civil War, he rises to the rank of major general leads the &ldquoMarch to the Sea&rdquo through Georgia and Carolinas receives surrender of Confederate forces under command of General Joseph E. Johnston serves as commanding general of the U.S. Army (1869-1883) and is credited with saying &ldquoWar is hell.&rdquo

Major General George Thomas.

Courtesy Library of Congress.

Major General George H. Thomas, USA (1816-1870)
West Point graduate (1840), served in Florida during Second Seminole War Union general who became known as the &ldquoRock of Chickamauga&rdquo because he stood his ground during the Battle of Chickamauga preventing a total route of the Union army. He died while serving in San Francisco.

Others who served in Florida during the Seminole Wars:

Braxton Bragg-CSA Joseph Hooker-USA Edward Ord-USA Samuel Heintzelman-USA William H. T. Walker-CSA Ambrose Hill-CSA: John Magruder-CSA.

phone: 561.832.4164 | fax: 561.832.7965 | mail: P.O. Box 4364, W.P.B., FL 33402 | visit: 300 N. Dixie Hwy, W.P.B., FL 33401

© 2009 Historical Society of Palm Beach County | all photos courtesy HSPBC unless otherwise noted

Williamsport, MD

Williamsport, Maryland is located along the heavily traveled “Indian Trail” and was once occupied by the Iroquois, Delaware, Catawba, Algonquin and Massawomeck tribes. The settlement was known as Conococheague, an Indian name meaning “a long way” in Algonquin or “river of many fish,” in Massawomeck. Eventually Williamsport became an important transportation hub throughout the Industrial Revolution with the Western Maryland Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal intersecting within city limits.

Start at the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Williamsport Visitor Center and explore the multiple examples of major canal structures that can be viewed within a half-mile.

Adjacent to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is River Bottom Park, a great place to stop, picnic, and even camp the night. Leaving the park and heading to town, you will find a welcome sign to the community. This business directory kiosk, installed as part of a regional initiative known as the Canal Towns Partnership , welcomes visitors and encourages them to stay and explore the history of the region and enjoy the many community services and businesses. The Williamsport sign provides you with a history of the town and the myriad of attractions and accommodations you will find in town.

Travel a few miles further up Potomac Street to Springfield Land to visit a frequent stop of George Washington’s–the historic Springfield Farm and Museum. The Town of Williamsport restored the historic barn and is in the process of restoring the farmhouse. Visit the museum located in the barn and operated by the History and Museum Board and observe firsthand the rich heritage and history of Williamsport. Other points of interest in town are the Byron Memorial Park, the historic Memorial Library and Riverview Cemetery where General Abner Doubleday set up a battery of artillery during the Civil War. The cemetery overlooks the Potomac River and the Conococheague Creek and is the burial site of many of the original inhabitants of the town.

Region: C&O Canal Towpath
Activity: Bicycling, Civil War, History

Historical Events on April 2

Event of Interest

1513 Explorer Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain as the first known European to reach Florida

    Jewish physician Joseph Hacohen expelled from city of Genoa, all Jews soon after England & France sign 1st Treaty of Le Cateau-Cambrésis States-General appoints earl Mauritius, viceroy of Utrecht Cornelis de Houtman's ships depart to Asia through Cape of Good Hope Robert Devereux resigns as parliament supreme commander Commodore William James captures the pirate fortress of Suvarnadurg on west coast of India

Election of Interest

1783 William Cavendish-Bentinck becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain after an opposition coalition of Henry Fox and Frederick North forces William Petty to resign

    The Coinage Act is passed establishing the United States Mint and authorizing the $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, ½ dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime

Music Premiere

1800 1st performance of Ludwig van Beethoven's 1st Symphony in C

Battle of Copenhagen

1801 Napoleonic Wars: The British led by Horatio Nelson destroy the Danish fleet in the naval Battle of Copenhagen

Nelson’s line anchored and in action against the Danish line, which lies between him and Copenhagen
    Forty merchantmen are wrecked when a convoy led by HMS Apollo runs aground off Portugal. 1st successful agricultural journal ("American Farmer") first publishes

Event of Interest

1865 Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia (US Civil War)

    Battle of Fort Blakely Alabama, last major battle of the US Civil War Battle of Selma, Alabama, Union forces break Confederates defenses to secure the town

Event of Interest

1866 US President Andrew Johnson ends civil war in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee & Virginia

    US engineer George Brayton patents an internal combustion engine (Brayton Cycle) 1st Easter egg roll held on White House lawn

Flash! Bang! It's the Human Cannonball!

1877 1st human cannonball act performed by 14-year-old Rossa Matilda Richter known as Zazel at the Royal Aquarium in London

    1st issue of Rotterdam's Newspaper Sixth Impressionist Exhibition opens in Paris organized by Edgar Degas and showing his famous "Little Dancer of Fourteen Years", the only sculpture shown in his lifetime Battle at Bamako: French assault on Fabous arm forces attack London prison for debtors closed 1st edition of The Volk published (Amsterdam) Dutch football club Maatschappelijke Voetbal Vereniging (MVV) is established in Maastricht, Netherlands

Event of Interest

1912 Titanic undergoes sea trials under its own power

    German troops overtake Bois de Caillette 57 armed New Zealand police invade the remote Ngāi Tūhoe settlement of Maungapōhatu in the Urewera Ranges to arrest the Māori prophet Rua Kēnana

Event of Interest

1917 Jeannette Rankin (Rep-R-Montana) begins her term as 1st woman member of US House of Reps

Event of Interest

1917 US President Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to declare war against Germany

Event of Interest

1921 Albert Einstein lectures in New York City on his new "Theory of Relativity"

Event of Interest

1930 Ras Tafari Makonnen becomes Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

Baseball Record

1931 17-year old girl Jackie Mitchell strikes out New York Yankees stars Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in an exhibition baseball game at Engel Stadium in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Event of Interest

1932 Charles Lindbergh turns over $50,000 as ransom for his kidnapped son

Historic Invention

1935 Scottish physicist Robert Watson-Watt receives a British patents for RADAR

US Masters Golf

1939 6th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Ralph Guldahl wins his only Masters title with a tournament record 279 (−9), 1 stroke ahead of runner-up Sam Snead

Event of Interest

1942 USS Hornet with Jimmy Doolittles B-25 departs from San Francisco

    LPGA Titleholders Championship Women's Golf, Augusta CC: Dorothy Kirby retains title by 5 strokes ahead of Eileen Stulb Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the Italian Communist Party returns to Italy from the Soviet Union

Music Premiere

1944 Dmitri Shostakovich's 8th Symphony premieres in NY

    Soviet Army marches into pro-German Romania Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Brazil are established Carlo Terron's "Il diamente del profeta" premieres in Rome WTAR (now WTKR) TV channel 3 in Norfolk, VA (CBS) begins broadcasting Raab forms his 1st government in Austria Plans to build Disneyland 1st announced [see Jan 26] Peter Ustinovs' "Romanoff & Juliet" premieres in Manchester Soap operas "As the World Turns" & "Edge of Night" premiere on TV Antillean Brewery (Amstel beer) opens Wind speed reaches a record 450 kph in tornado, Wichita Falls, Texas Mabry Harper catches a world record 25lb Walleye at Cedar Bluff on the Cumberland River in Tennessee Cuba buys oil from USSR KPEC TV channel 56 in Lakewood Center-Tacoma, WA (PBS) 1st broadcast The first official Panda crossing is opened outside Waterloo station, London. Explorer 17 attains Earth orbit (254/914 km) USSR launches Luna 4 missed Moon by 8,500 km

Event of Interest

1968 Senator Eugene McCarthy wins Democratic primary in Wisconsin

Film Premier

1968 "2001 A Space Odyssey" directed by Stanley Kubrick and starring Keir Dullea and Gary Lockwood, premieres at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C.

    Toronto center Forbes Kennedy sets a Stanley Cup playoff record for most penalties in one game with 8 as the Maple Leafs crash 10-0 to the Bruins at Boston Boston’s first NHL playoff victory in 10 years Meghalaya becomes autonomous state within India's Assam state 2 men begin ascent of south face of Annapurna I, highest final stage in a wall climb in world Dark Shadows, American Gothic supernatural soap opera, concludes an almost 5 year run on ABC Libya concludes 5 weeks of negotiations with Western oil companies in Tripoli

Event of Interest

1972 Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin visits Cairo

Event of Interest

1972 Tennessee Williams' "Small Craft Warnings" premieres in NYC

Event of Interest

1972 New York Mets manager Gil Hodges collapses just minutes after completing a round of golf in West Palm Beach, Florida, and dies of a heart attack

    CBS radio begins on the hour news, 24 hours a day ITT admits to asking CIA to influence Chilean presidential election Launch of the LexisNexis computerized legal research service.

Academy Awards

Event of Interest

1974 England cricket fast bowler Tony Greig takes 8-86 in West Indies' 1st innings in tourists' 26 run 5th Test win in Port-of-Spain Greig also captures 5-70 in 2nd innings

    Vietnam War: Thousands of civilian refugees flee from the Quang Ngai Province in front of advancing North Vietnamese troops. Cambodia Khieu Sampan succeeds Prince Sihanouk as Premier Portuguese constitution assumed

Event of Interest

1976 Oakland Athletics trade 2 key members from recent World Series C'ship team, sending outfielder Reggie Jackson and pitcher Ken Holtzman to Baltimore Orioles in exchange for outfielder Don Baylor and pitchers Mike Torrez and Paul Mitchell

    Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours" album goes to No. 1 & stays atop charts for 31 weeks Montreal Canadiens rout the Washington Capitals, 11-0 at the Montreal Forum to set an NHL record of 34 straight home games without a loss 131st Grand National: Tommy Stack wins aboard 9/1 Red Rum record third GN victory (1973-74) Charlotte Brew first female to ride in the race Jamaican batsman Basil Williams scores 100 on debut for the West Indies in Australia's 3 wicket 3rd Test victory in Georgetown, Guyana TV show "Dallas" starring Larry Hagman and Barbara Bel Geddes premieres on CBS as a 5 week mini-series ratings success leads to a 13 year run Georges de Mestral's patent for "velvet type fabric" expires, puts "Velcro" in the open market

Event of Interest

1978 Czech tennis star Martina Navratilova wins her first WTA Tour Championship beats Evonne Goolagong Cawley of Australia 7-6, 6-4 at Oakland Coliseum Arena

Event of Interest

1980 In his first full season in the NHL, Wayne Gretzky scores for Edmonton in a 1-1 tie with Minnesota North Stars to become the youngest player to reach 50 goals at 19 years and 2 months of age

Event of Interest

1980 Montreal right wing Guy Lafleur scores twice to become the first player in NHL history to record 6 straight 50-goal seasons, as the Canadiens beat the Red Wings, 7-2 at Detroit

    Belgium's 4th government of Martens resigns Heavy battle between Christian militia & Syrian army in East Lebanon Several thousand Argentine troops seize the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands from Great Britain

Event of Interest

1983 New York Islanders right wing Mike Bossy scores in a 6-3 win over the Pittsburgh Penguins to become the first player in NHL history to score 60 goals in 3 consecutive seasons

Event of Interest

1984 46th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Georgetown beats Houston, 84-75 Hoyas center Patrick Ewing tournament MOP John Thompson first African-American head coach to lead his team to any NCAA Division I title

    US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Edmonton center Wayne Gretzky sets an NHL record with his 34th career hat trick as the Oilers beat the Kings 6-4 in Los Angeles Quebec's Czech center Peter Stastny scores his 100th NHL point of the season for the 5th straight year, with an assist for the Nordiques in a 6-4 win over the Boston Bruins in Quebec City The NCAA Rules Committee adopts a 45-second shot clock for men’s basketball to begin in the 1986 season in an effort to eliminate stalling 4 US passengers killed by bomb at TWA counter Athens Airport Greece George Corley Wallace (Gov-D-Ala) announces retirement plans NCAA Basketball Rules Committee votes to adopt the 3-point shot beginning the 1986-87 season sets college distance at 19 feet, 9 inches, compared to 21 feet in the NBA

Event of Interest

1986 NYC Mayor Ed Koch signs & brings the Gay Rights Bill into effect

NHL Record

1986 Paul Coffey of the Edmonton Oilers scores his 47th and 48th goals of the season in an 8-4 win over the Vancouver Canucks to break Bobby Orr's NHL record for most goals by a defenseman

    "Mikado" opens at Virginia Theater NYC for 46 performances IBM introduces PS/2 & OS/2 West Indies cricket fast bowling great Curtly Ambrose makes his debut in 9 wicket 1st Test defeat to Pakistan in Georgetown, Guyana low key debut with 2-108 Nabisco Dinah Shore Women's Golf, Mission Hills CC: Juli Inkster leads wire-to-wire to win her second DS event, 5 strokes ahead of runners-up JoAnne Carner and Tammie Green 8th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Tennessee beats Auburn, 76-60 Lady Vols forward Bridgette Gordon MOP


1989 WrestleMania V, Historic Atlantic City Convention Hall, NJ: Hulk Hogan beats Randy "Macho Man" Savage for WWF Heavyweight title

    Calgary Flames right wing Joe Mullen sets new NHL record for most points in a season by a American-born player, with a goal and 2 assists in a 4-2 win over Edmonton Oilers gives him 110 points 52nd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Nevada-LV beats Duke, 103-73 record largest margin of victory in a championship game Runnin' Rebels' first title Rotterdam Daily Newspaper begins publishing

Murder of Interest

1992 Mafia boss John Gotti is found guilty of 5 murders (Paul Castellano, Thomas Bilotti, Robert DiBernardo, Liborio Milito and Louis Dibono), plus conspiracy to murder, loansharking, illegal gambling, obstruction of justice, bribery and tax evasion

    Space Shuttle STS-45 (Atlantis 11) lands 1st test flight of Fokker 70 (Amsterdam) Venezuelan DC-10 crashes at Margarita, killing 10 Cleveland Cavaliers guard Mark Price has his consecutive free throw streak end at 77, during a 114-113 loss at Charlotte falls 1 short of Calvin Murphy’s NBA record of 78 straight free throws 14th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Connecticut beats Tennessee, 70-64 Huskies' first NCAA title, completing first undefeated season since 1986 Texas

Golf Tournament

1995 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, GC at Desert Mountain: 2-time champion Jack Nicklaus wins with birdie on 3rd playoff hole against Isao Aoki

    NY Police Department & NY Transit Police merge into one organization North & Western Colorado begins using new area code 970 Longest strike in American major league sports history (232 days) ends as MLB owners accept players’ offer to return to work without a contract MLB is first major pro sports league to lose an entire postseason due to labor struggles Sunday NY Times raises price from $2.00 to $2.50


1995 WrestleMania XI, Hartford Civic Centre, CT: NFL linebacker Lawrence Taylor defeats Bam Bam Bigelow

    Detroit Tigers slugger Cecil Fielder steals 1st base in 1,097th career game, a 10-6 win at Minnesota Twins longest duration in MLB history without a stolen base

Event of Interest

1996 Sri Lankan cricket batsman Sanath Jayasuriya hits century in 48 balls (134 off 65), in 34 run win over Pakistan in Singapore world ODI record

    Vancouver Grizzlies beat Minnesota Timberwolves, 105-103 at General Motors Place Arena to end their NBA single-season record 23-game consecutive loss streak "Doll's House" opens at Belasco Theater NYC 19th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Connecticut beats Tennessee, 71-52 Huskies' point guard Shea Ralph is named the Most Outstanding Player


2000 WrestleMania XVI, Arrowhead Pond of Anaheim, CA: Triple H beats The Rock, Mick Foley and The Big Show in a 4-way elimination match for the WWF Heavyweight tile

Event of Interest

2000 The Tradition Senior Men's Golf, GC at Desert Mountain: Tom Kite wins his lone Champions Tour major with birdie on 6th playoff hole with Tom Watson & Larry Nelson

    Atlanta center Ray Ferraro scores a goal and added 2 assists as the Thrashers end an NHL record 17-game home winless streak (0-15-2) with a 5-4 win against the visiting New York Islanders Adam Gilchrist takes his 10th catch in the 3rd cricket Test against New Zealand in Hamilton to create an Australian record for dismissals by a wicketkeeper Australia wins by 6 wickets for 3-0 series sweep 63rd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Duke beats Arizona, 82-72 Blue Devils' 3rd title forward Shane Battier MOP

Baseball Record

2001 New York Yankees pitcher Roger Clemens becomes American League all-time strikeout leader, recording his 3,509th K in a 7-3 victory over the Kansas City Royals Walter Johnson previous record 3,508 Ks

Event of Interest

2001 Seattle outfielder Ichiro Suzuki has 2 hits and becomes first Japanese position player to play in a regular season MLB game as Mariners beat Oakland A's, 5-4 at Safeco Field

    Israeli forces surround the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem into which armed Palestinians had retreated. A siege ensues. At 27 years, 249 days Texas Rangers infielder Alex Rodriguez becomes the youngest MLB player to hit 300 home runs homers off Ramon Ortiz in 5th inning of an 11-5 loss to the Angels in Anaheim Islamist terrorists involved in the 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks attempt to bomb the Spanish high-speed train AVE near Madrid. Their attack is thwarted. Bubba Stewart becomes first African-American to win a major motor sports event when he takes out the Monster Energy AMA Supercross C'ship event in Irving, Texas Newcastle United teammates Kieron Dyer and Lee Bowyer are sent off for fighting each other in a 3-0 home defeat to EPL rivals Aston Villa at St. James’ Park Over 60 tornadoes break out, hardest hit is Tennessee with 29 people killed.

Golf Major

2006 Kraft Nabisco Championship Women's Golf, Mission Hills CC: Australian Karrie Webb beats Lorena Ochoa of Mexico with a birdie on the 1st playoff hole earlier eagles same hole to force the playoff


2006 WrestleMania XXII, Allstate Arena, Chicago, IL: John Cena beats Triple H Rey Mysterio defeats Kurt Angle and Randy Orton in a Triple Threat title match

    69th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Florida beats Ohio State, 84-75 Gators' back-to-back titles forward Corey Brewer named Most Outstanding Player

Event of Interest

2007 Laureus World Sports Awards, Palau Sant Jordi, Barcelona, Spain: Sportsman: Roger Federer Sportswoman: Yelena Isinbayeva Team: Italy Men's National Football team

Contract of Interest

2010 Basketball superstar Kobe Bryant signs a three-year contract extension with the NBA's Los Angeles Lakers worth $87 million

Event of Interest

2011 Cricket World Cup, Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai: India beats Sri Lanka by 6 wickets first country to win on home soil MS Dhoni Man of the Match, Yuvraj Singh, Player of Series