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1452 - 1519
Life of the great Italian artist, scientist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci.
15 Apr 1452
Birth of Renaissance artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci.
Leonardo da Vinci enrols as an apprentice in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his apprenticeship as an artist in Florence.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his painting 'The Annunciation'.
Leonardo da Vinci moves to Milan where he works for Ludovico Sforza.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his oil on panel painting 'Virgin of the Rocks'.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his portrait of Ludovico Sforza’s mistress Cecilia Gallerani, 'The Lady with an Ermine'.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his 'Vitruvian Man' sketch.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his wall mural 'The Last Supper' in Milan's Sante Maria delle Grazie.
The Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci visits Venice.
Leonardo da Vinci moves to Rome where he works for Cesare Borgia to sort out the city’s canals.
Leonardo da Vinci produces his precise overhead view map of Imola, the first map of its kind.
Leonard da Vinci completes his coloured charcoal illustration 'Virgin and Child with St. Anne'.
Leonardo da Vinci returns to Florence to work on proposals for a battle scene mural in the city’s Council Hall.
c. 1503 - c. 1506
Leonardo da Vinci completes his painting the 'Mona Lisa'.
Leonardo da Vinci completes his painting 'St. John the Baptist '.
Leonardo da Vinci moves to France to work for Francis I of France.
2 May 1519
Leonardo da Vinci dies at Chateau Cloux (aka Clos Lucé) in France.
Leonardo da Vinci Timeline - History
The infographics to Leonardo da Vinci's 500th anniversary — the timeline of the artist's life, his scientific studies, major paintings, inventions, key events, other artists of his time & their patrons.
There are three blocks — time, studies & masterpieces. They show the connection between the events in Europe in 1450–1520 years and development of Leonardo Da Vinci's genius.
The Renaissance is a period in European history in 14 th –17 th centuries, marking the transition
from the Middle Ages to modernity.
It began in the 14 th century in Florence. The city was wealthy, modern & forward-thinking one for its times
(a free republic, one of the few on the peninsula). The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks caused
the migration of Greek scholars & their texts to Italy.
It was the age of discovery and development in all spheres of life imaginable. The intellectual basis
of the Renaissance was humanistic idea: «Man is the measure of all things». This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science & literature.
The time was full of outstanding masters. Among Leonardo's contemporaries were Botticelli & Donatello, Bosch & Durer, Rafael, Titian & Michelangelo.
«The mind of the painter is transformed into a copy of the divine mind, since it operates freely in creating many kinds of animals, plants, fruits, landscapes, countrysides, ruins, and awe-inspiring places»
Da Vinci may be best known as an artist but he was also an engineer, thinker & inventor. His notebooks / manuscripts reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry & inventiveness that were centuries ahead of their time.
The results of his research were among the first great achievements of the forthcoming age's thinking, because they were based to an unprecedented degree on the principle of experience. He developed a unique «theory of knowledge» where art & science form a synthesis.
In his anatomical studies Leonardo «bridged the gap between medieval & modern anatomy»
and used this knowledge in his arts.
«Nature is the source of all true knowledge. She has her own logic, her own laws, she has no effect without cause nor invention without necessity»
17 of his paintings are generally attributed either in whole or in large part to him. Works are regularly attributed to him with varying degrees of credibility — none of Leonardo's paintings are signed. The attributions draw on the opinions of various scholars. It is believed that he made many more, only for them to be lost over the years or remain unidentified.
8 of his works is considered lost & are known only as copies, early sketches or his contemporaries' evidence.
13 paintings of Leonardo has disputed attribution.
6 works, including his longest project ever (Gran Cavallo), were not completed.
The small number of surviving paintings is due in part to Leonardo's frequently disastrous experimentation with new techniques & his chronic procrastination. Nevertheless, these few works together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, comprise a contribution to later generations of artists, scientists & inventors.
The genius starts scribbling down some 20,000 pages of ideas. (Can you say writer’s cramp?) He spells words backward and reverses each letter so his notes only look normal when reflected in a mirror. “Mirror writing” might have helped protect his ideas from snoops.
Leonardo sketches designs of a flying machine. His blueprints make him the first known person to seriously study ways for humans to take flight.
Asked by the Duke of Milan to paint a mural for a dining room, Leonardo creates “The Last Supper.” People love the piece and Leonardo rockets to superstardom.
Early life (1452–1472)
Birth and background
Leonardo da Vinci, [b] properly named Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo, son of ser Piero from Vinci),   [c] was born on 15 April 1452 in, or close to, the Tuscan hill town of Vinci Florence was 20 miles away.   [d] He was born out of wedlock to Ser Piero da Vinci [fr] (Ser Piero di Antonio di Ser Piero di Ser Guido da Vinci 1426–1504),  a Florentine legal notary,  and Caterina [it] (c. 1434 – 1494), from the lower-class.   It remains uncertain where Leonardo was born the traditional account, from a local oral tradition recorded by the historian Emanuele Repetti,  is that he was born in Anchiano, a country hamlet that would have offered sufficient privacy for the illegitimate birth, though, it is still possible he was born in a house in Florence, which Ser Piero almost certainly had.  [a] Leonardo's parents both married separately the year after his birth. Caterina—who later appears in Leonardo's notes as only "Caterina" or "Catelina"—is usually identified as the Caterina Buti del Vacca who married the local artisan Antonio di Piero Buti del Vacca, nicknamed "L'Accattabriga" ("the quarrelsome one").   Other theories have been proposed, particularly that of art historian Martin Kemp, who suggested Caterina di Meo Lippi, an orphan that married supposably with aid from Ser Piero and his family.  [e] [f] Ser Piero married Albiera Amadori—having been betrothed to her the previous year—and after her death in 1462, went on to have three subsequent marriages.   [g] From all the marriages, Leonardo eventually had 12 half-siblings, who were much younger than he was (the last was born when Leonardo was 40 years old) and with whom he had very little contact. [h]
Very little is known about Leonardo's childhood and much is shrouded in myth, partially because of his biography in Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550) from the 16th-century art historian Giorgio Vasari.   Tax records indicate that by at least 1457 he lived in the household of his paternal grandfather, Antonio da Vinci,  but it is possible that he spent the years before then in the care of his mother in Vinci, either Anchiano or Campo Zeppi in the parish of San Pantaleone.   He is thought to have been close with his uncle, Francesco da Vinci,  but his father was likely in Florence most of the time.  Ser Piero, who was the descendent of a long line of notaries, established an official residence in Florence by at least 1469 and led a successful career.  Despite his family history, Leonardo only received a basic and informal education in (vernacular) writing, reading and math, possibly because his artistic talents were recognized early. 
Later in life, Leonardo recorded his earliest memory, now in the Codex Atlanticus.  While writing on the flight of birds, he recalled as an infant when a kite came to his cradle and opened his mouth with its tail commentators still debate whether the anecdote was an actual memory or a fantasy.  [i]
In the mid-1460s, Leonardo's family moved to Florence, which at the time was the centre of Christian Humanist thought and culture.  Around the age of 14,  he became a garzone (studio boy) in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, who was the leading Florentine painter and sculptor of his time.  This was about the time of the death of Verrocchio's master, the great sculptor Donatello. [j] Leonardo became an apprentice by the age of 17 and remained in training for seven years.  Other famous painters apprenticed in the workshop or associated with it include Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli, and Lorenzo di Credi.   Leonardo was exposed to both theoretical training and a wide range of technical skills,  including drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics, and wood-work, as well as the artistic skills of drawing, painting, sculpting, and modelling.  [k]
Leonardo was a contemporary of Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Perugino, who were all slightly older than he was.  He would have met them at the workshop of Verrocchio or at the Platonic Academy of the Medici.  Florence was ornamented by the works of artists such as Donatello's contemporaries Masaccio, whose figurative frescoes were imbued with realism and emotion, and Ghiberti, whose Gates of Paradise, gleaming with gold leaf, displayed the art of combining complex figure compositions with detailed architectural backgrounds. Piero della Francesca had made a detailed study of perspective,  and was the first painter to make a scientific study of light. These studies and Leon Battista Alberti's treatise De pictura were to have a profound effect on younger artists and in particular on Leonardo's own observations and artworks.  
Much of the painting in Verrocchio's workshop was done by his assistants. According to Vasari, Leonardo collaborated with Verrocchio on his The Baptism of Christ, painting the young angel holding Jesus' robe in a manner that was so far superior to his master's that Verrocchio put down his brush and never painted again, although this is believed to be an apocryphal story. [‡ 1] Close examination reveals areas of the work that have been painted or touched-up over the tempera, using the new technique of oil paint, including the landscape, the rocks seen through the brown mountain stream, and much of the figure of Jesus, bearing witness to the hand of Leonardo.  Leonardo may have been the model for two works by Verrocchio: the bronze statue of David in the Bargello, and the Archangel Raphael in Tobias and the Angel. 
Giorgio Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Renaissance painters, tells a story of Leonardo as a very young man: A local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him. Leonardo, inspired by the story of Medusa, responded with a painting of a monster spitting fire that was so terrifying that his father bought a different shield to give to the peasant and sold Leonardo's to a Florentine art dealer for 100 ducats, who in turn sold it to the Duke of Milan. [‡ 2]
First Florentine period (1472–c. 1482)
By 1472, at the age of 20, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke, the guild of artists and doctors of medicine, [l] but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate and live with him.   Leonardo's earliest known dated work is a 1473 pen-and-ink drawing of the Arno valley,  which has been cited as the first "pure" landscape in the Occident. [m]  According to Vasari, the young Leonardo was the first to suggest making the Arno river a navigable channel between Florence and Pisa. 
In January 1478, Leonardo received an independent commission to paint an altarpiece for the Chapel of St. Bernard in the Palazzo Vecchio,  an indication of his independence from Verrocchio's studio. An anonymous early biographer, known as Anonimo Gaddiano, claims that in 1480 Leonardo was living with the Medici and often worked in the garden of the Piazza San Marco, Florence, where a Neoplatonic academy of artists, poets and philosophers organized by the Medici met.  [n] In March 1481, he received a commission from the monks of San Donato in Scopeto for The Adoration of the Magi.  Neither of these initial commissions were completed, being abandoned when Leonardo went to offer his services to Duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza. Leonardo wrote Sforza a letter which described the diverse things that he could achieve in the fields of engineering and weapon design, and mentioned that he could paint.   He brought with him a silver string instrument—either a lute or lyre—in the form of a horse's head. 
With Alberti, Leonardo visited the home of the Medici and through them came to know the older Humanist philosophers of whom Marsiglio Ficino, proponent of Neoplatonism Cristoforo Landino, writer of commentaries on Classical writings, and John Argyropoulos, teacher of Greek and translator of Aristotle were the foremost. Also associated with the Platonic Academy of the Medici was Leonardo's contemporary, the brilliant young poet and philosopher Pico della Mirandola.    In 1482, Leonardo was sent as an ambassador by Lorenzo de' Medici to Ludovico il Moro, who ruled Milan between 1479 and 1499.  
Landscape of the Arno Valley (1473), probably the first true landscape in art 
Sketch of the hanging of Bernardo Bandini Baroncelli, 1479
First Milanese period (c. 1482–1499)
Leonardo worked in Milan from 1482 until 1499. He was commissioned to paint the Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception and The Last Supper for the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.  In the spring of 1485, Leonardo travelled to Hungary on behalf of Sforza to meet king Matthias Corvinus, and was commissioned by him to paint a Madonna.  Leonardo was employed on many other projects for Sforza, including the preparation of floats and pageants for special occasions, a drawing and wooden model for a competition to design the cupola for Milan Cathedral (which he withdrew),  and a model for a huge equestrian monument to Ludovico's predecessor Francesco Sforza. This would have surpassed in size the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello's Gattamelata in Padua and Verrocchio's Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, and became known as the Gran Cavallo.  Leonardo completed a model for the horse and made detailed plans for its casting,  but in November 1494, Ludovico gave the bronze to his brother-in-law to be used for a cannon to defend the city from Charles VIII of France. 
Salaì, or Il Salaino ("The Little Unclean One," i.e., the devil), entered Leonardo's household in 1490 as an assistant. After only a year, Leonardo made a list of his misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton," after he had made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions and spent a fortune on clothes.  Nevertheless, Leonardo treated him with great indulgence, and he remained in Leonardo's household for the next thirty years.  Salaì executed a number of paintings under the name of Andrea Salaì, but although Vasari claims that Leonardo "taught him a great deal about painting," [‡ 3] his work is generally considered to be of less artistic merit than others among Leonardo's pupils, such as Marco d'Oggiono and Boltraffio.
Second Florentine period (1500–1508)
When Ludovico Sforza was overthrown by France in 1500, Leonardo fled Milan for Venice, accompanied by his assistant Salaì and friend, the mathematician Luca Pacioli.  In Venice, Leonardo was employed as a military architect and engineer, devising methods to defend the city from naval attack.  On his return to Florence in 1500, he and his household were guests of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata and were provided with a workshop where, according to Vasari, Leonardo created the cartoon of The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist, a work that won such admiration that "men and women, young and old" flocked to see it "as if they were attending a great festival." [‡ 4] [o]
In Cesena in 1502, Leonardo entered the service of Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, acting as a military architect and engineer and travelling throughout Italy with his patron.  Leonardo created a map of Cesare Borgia's stronghold, a town plan of Imola in order to win his patronage. Upon seeing it, Cesare hired Leonardo as his chief military engineer and architect. Later in the year, Leonardo produced another map for his patron, one of Chiana Valley, Tuscany, so as to give his patron a better overlay of the land and greater strategic position. He created this map in conjunction with his other project of constructing a dam from the sea to Florence, in order to allow a supply of water to sustain the canal during all seasons.
Leonardo had left Borgia's service and returned to Florence by early 1503,  where he rejoined the Guild of Saint Luke on 18 October of that year. By this same month, Leonardo had begun working on a portrait of Lisa del Giocondo, the model for the Mona Lisa,   which he would continue working on until his twilight years. In January 1504, he was part of a committee formed to recommend where Michelangelo's statue of David should be placed.  He then spent two years in Florence designing and painting a mural of The Battle of Anghiari for the Signoria,  with Michelangelo designing its companion piece, The Battle of Cascina. [p]
In 1506, Leonardo was summoned to Milan by Charles II d'Amboise, the acting French governor of the city.  There, Leonardo took on another pupil, Count Francesco Melzi, the son of a Lombard aristocrat, who is considered to have been his favourite student.  The Council of Florence wished Leonardo to return promptly to finish The Battle of Anghiari, but he was given leave at the behest of Louis XII, who considered commissioning the artist to make some portraits.  Leonardo may have commenced a project for an equestrian figure of d'Amboise  a wax model survives and, if genuine, is the only extant example of Leonardo's sculpture. Leonardo was otherwise free to pursue his scientific interests.  Many of Leonardo's most prominent pupils either knew or worked with him in Milan,  including Bernardino Luini, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, and Marco d'Oggiono. In 1507, Leonardo was in Florence sorting out a dispute with his brothers over the estate of his father, who had died in 1504.
Leonardo's map of Imola, created for Cesare Borgia, 1502
Second Milanese period (1508–1513)
By 1508, Leonardo was back in Milan, living in his own house in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila. 
In 1512, Leonardo was working on plans for an equestrian monument for Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, but this was prevented by an invasion of a confederation of Swiss, Spanish and Venetian forces, which drove the French from Milan. Leonardo stayed in the city, spending several months in 1513 at the Medici's Vaprio d'Adda villa. 
Rome and France (1513–1519)
In March of 1513, Lorenzo de' Medici's son Giovanni assumed the papacy (as Leo X) Leonardo went to Rome that September, where he was received by the pope's brother Giuliano.  From September 1513 to 1516, Leonardo spent much of his time living in the Belvedere Courtyard in the Apostolic Palace, where Michelangelo and Raphael were both active.  Leonardo was given an allowance of 33 ducats a month, and according to Vasari, decorated a lizard with scales dipped in quicksilver.  The pope gave him a painting commission of unknown subject matter, but cancelled it when the artist set about developing a new kind of varnish.  [q] Leonardo became ill, in what may have been the first of multiple strokes leading to his death.  He practiced botany in the Gardens of Vatican City, and was commissioned to make plans for the pope's proposed draining of the Pontine Marshes.  He also dissected cadavers, making notes for a treatise on vocal cords  these he gave to an official in hopes of regaining the pope's favor, but was unsuccessful. 
In October 1515, King Francis I of France recaptured Milan.  Leonardo was present at the 19 December meeting of Francis I and Leo X, which took place in Bologna.    In 1516, Leonardo entered Francis' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Lucé, near the king's residence at the royal Château d'Amboise. Being frequently visited by Francis, he drew plans for an immense castle town the king intended to erect at Romorantin, and made a mechanical lion, which during a pageant walked toward the king and—upon being struck by a wand—opened its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies.  [‡ 3] [r] Leonardo was accompanied during this time by his friend and apprentice Francesco Melzi, and supported by a pension totalling 10,000 scudi.  At some point, Melzi drew a portrait of Leonardo the only others known from his lifetime were a sketch by an unknown assistant on the back of one of Leonardo's studies (c. 1517 )  and a drawing by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino depicting an elderly Leonardo with his right arm assuaged by cloth.  [s] The latter, in addition to the record of an October 1517 visit by Louis d'Aragon, [t] confirms an account of Leonardo's right hand being paralytic at the age of 65,  which may indicate why he left works such as the Mona Lisa unfinished.    He continued to work at some capacity until eventually becoming ill and bedridden for several months. 
Leonardo died at Clos Lucé on 2 May 1519 at the age of 67, possibly of a stroke.    Francis I had become a close friend. Vasari describes Leonardo as lamenting on his deathbed, full of repentance, that "he had offended against God and men by failing to practice his art as he should have done."  Vasari states that in his last days, Leonardo sent for a priest to make his confession and to receive the Holy Sacrament. [‡ 5] Vasari also records that the king held Leonardo's head in his arms as he died, although this story may be legend rather than fact. [u] [v] In accordance with his will, sixty beggars carrying tapers followed Leonardo's casket.  [w] Melzi was the principal heir and executor, receiving, as well as money, Leonardo's paintings, tools, library and personal effects. Leonardo's other long-time pupil and companion, Salaì, and his servant Baptista de Vilanis, each received half of Leonardo's vineyards.  His brothers received land, and his serving woman received a fur-lined cloak. On 12 August 1519, Leonardo's remains were interred in the Collegiate Church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise. 
Salaì owned the Mona Lisa at the time of his death in 1524, and in his will it was assessed at 505 lire, an exceptionally high valuation for a small panel portrait.  Some 20 years after Leonardo's death, Francis was reported by the goldsmith and sculptor Benvenuto Cellini as saying: "There had never been another man born in the world who knew as much as Leonardo, not so much about painting, sculpture and architecture, as that he was a very great philosopher." 
Despite the thousands of pages Leonardo left in notebooks and manuscripts, he scarcely made reference to his personal life. 
Within Leonardo's lifetime, his extraordinary powers of invention, his "outstanding physical beauty," "infinite grace," "great strength and generosity," "regal spirit and tremendous breadth of mind," as described by Vasari, [‡ 6] as well as all other aspects of his life, attracted the curiosity of others. One such aspect was his love for animals, likely including vegetarianism and according to Vasari, a habit of purchasing caged birds and releasing them.  [‡ 7]
Leonardo had many friends who are now renowned either in their fields or for their historical significance. They included the mathematician Luca Pacioli,  with whom he collaborated on the book Divina proportione in the 1490s. Leonardo appears to have had no close relationships with women except for his friendship with Cecilia Gallerani and the two Este sisters, Beatrice and Isabella.  While on a journey that took him through Mantua, he drew a portrait of Isabella that appears to have been used to create a painted portrait, now lost. 
Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret. His sexuality has been the subject of satire, analysis, and speculation. This trend began in the mid-16th century and was revived in the 19th and 20th centuries, most notably by Sigmund Freud in his Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood.  Leonardo's most intimate relationships were perhaps with his pupils Salaì and Melzi. Melzi, writing to inform Leonardo's brothers of his death, described Leonardo's feelings for his pupils as both loving and passionate. It has been claimed since the 16th century that these relationships were of a sexual or erotic nature. Court records of 1476, when he was aged twenty-four, show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy in an incident involving a well-known male prostitute. The charges were dismissed for lack of evidence, and there is speculation that since one of the accused, Lionardo de Tornabuoni, was related to Lorenzo de' Medici, the family exerted its influence to secure the dismissal.  Since that date much has been written about his presumed homosexuality  and its role in his art, particularly in the androgyny and eroticism manifested in Saint John the Baptist and Bacchus and more explicitly in a number of erotic drawings. 
Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter. A handful of works that are either authenticated or attributed to him have been regarded as among the great masterpieces. These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities that have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics. By the 1490s Leonardo had already been described as a "Divine" painter. 
Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are his innovative techniques for laying on the paint his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology his interest in physiognomy and the way humans register emotion in expression and gesture his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition and his use of subtle gradation of tone. All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, and the Virgin of the Rocks. 
Leonardo first gained attention for his work on the Baptism of Christ, painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two other paintings appear to date from his time at Verrocchio's workshop, both of which are Annunciations. One is small, 59 centimetres (23 in) long and 14 centimetres (5.5 in) high. It is a "predella" to go at the base of a larger composition, a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated. The other is a much larger work, 217 centimetres (85 in) long.  In both Annunciations, Leonardo used a formal arrangement, like two well-known pictures by Fra Angelico of the same subject, of the Virgin Mary sitting or kneeling to the right of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with a rich flowing garment, raised wings and bearing a lily. Although previously attributed to Ghirlandaio, the larger work is now generally attributed to Leonardo. 
In the smaller painting, Mary averts her eyes and folds her hands in a gesture that symbolised submission to God's will. Mary is not submissive, however, in the larger piece. The girl, interrupted in her reading by this unexpected messenger, puts a finger in her bible to mark the place and raises her hand in a formal gesture of greeting or surprise.  This calm young woman appears to accept her role as the Mother of God, not with resignation but with confidence. In this painting, the young Leonardo presents the humanist face of the Virgin Mary, recognising humanity's role in God's incarnation.
Paintings of the 1480s
In the 1480s, Leonardo received two very important commissions and commenced another work that was of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition. Two of the three were never finished, and the third took so long that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment.
One of these paintings was Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, which Bortolon associates with a difficult period of Leonardo's life, as evidenced in his diary: "I thought I was learning to live I was only learning to die."  Although the painting is barely begun, the composition can be seen and is very unusual. [x] Jerome, as a penitent, occupies the middle of the picture, set on a slight diagonal and viewed somewhat from above. His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction. J. Wasserman points out the link between this painting and Leonardo's anatomical studies.  Across the foreground sprawls his symbol, a great lion whose body and tail make a double spiral across the base of the picture space. The other remarkable feature is the sketchy landscape of craggy rocks against which the figure is silhouetted.
The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama also appear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi, a commission from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto. It is a complex composition, of about 250 x 250 centimetres. Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture that forms part of the background. In 1482 Leonardo went to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de' Medici in order to win favour with Ludovico il Moro, and the painting was abandoned. 
The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks, commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception. The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers, was to fill a large complex altarpiece.  Leonardo chose to paint an apocryphal moment of the infancy of Christ when the infant John the Baptist, in protection of an angel, met the Holy Family on the road to Egypt. The painting demonstrates an eerie beauty as the graceful figures kneel in adoration around the infant Christ in a wild landscape of tumbling rock and whirling water.  While the painting is quite large, about 200×120 centimetres , it is not nearly as complex as the painting ordered by the monks of St Donato, having only four figures rather than about fifty and a rocky landscape rather than architectural details. The painting was eventually finished in fact, two versions of the painting were finished: one remained at the chapel of the Confraternity, while Leonardo took the other to France. The Brothers did not get their painting, however, nor the de Predis their payment, until the next century.  
Leonardo's most remarkable portrait of this period is the Lady with an Ermine, presumed to be Cecilia Gallerani (c. 1483–1490 ), lover of Ludovico Sforza.   The painting is characterised by the pose of the figure with the head turned at a very different angle to the torso, unusual at a date when many portraits were still rigidly in profile. The ermine plainly carries symbolic meaning, relating either to the sitter, or to Ludovico who belonged to the prestigious Order of the Ermine. 
Paintings of the 1490s
Leonardo's most famous painting of the 1490s is The Last Supper, commissioned for the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. It represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death, and shows the moment when Jesus has just said "one of you will betray me", and the consternation that this statement caused. 
The writer Matteo Bandello observed Leonardo at work and wrote that some days he would paint from dawn till dusk without stopping to eat and then not paint for three or four days at a time.  This was beyond the comprehension of the prior of the convent, who hounded him until Leonardo asked Ludovico to intervene. Vasari describes how Leonardo, troubled over his ability to adequately depict the faces of Christ and the traitor Judas, told the Duke that he might be obliged to use the prior as his model. [‡ 8]
When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterization, [‡ 9] but it deteriorated rapidly, so that within a hundred years it was described by one viewer as "completely ruined."  Leonardo, instead of using the reliable technique of fresco, had used tempera over a ground that was mainly gesso, resulting in a surface subject to mould and to flaking.  Despite this, the painting remains one of the most reproduced works of art countless copies have been made in various mediums.
It is recorded that in 1492, Leonardo, with assistants painted the Sala delle Asse in the Sforza Castle in Milan, with a trompe-l'œil depicting trees, with an intricate labyrinth of leaves and knots on the ceiling. 
Paintings of the 16th century
In 1505 Leonardo was commissioned to paint The Battle of Anghiari in the Salone dei Cinquecento (Hall of the Five Hundred) in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. Leonardo devised a dynamic composition depicting four men riding raging war horses engaged in a battle for possession of a standard, at the Battle of Anghiari in 1440. Michelangelo was assigned the opposite wall to depict the Battle of Cascina. Leonardo's painting deteriorated rapidly and is now known from a copy by Rubens. 
Among the works created by Leonardo in the 16th century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa or La Gioconda, the laughing one. In the present era, it is arguably the most famous painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's face, its mysterious quality perhaps due to the subtly shadowed corners of the mouth and eyes such that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called "sfumato," or Leonardo's smoke. Vasari, who is generally thought to have known the painting only by repute, said that "the smile was so pleasing that it seemed divine rather than human and those who saw it were amazed to find that it was as alive as the original." [‡ 10] [y]
Other characteristics of the painting are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux the subdued colouring and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils laid on much like tempera, and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable. [z] Vasari expressed the opinion that the manner of painting would make even "the most confident master. despair and lose heart." [‡ 11] The perfect state of preservation and the fact that there is no sign of repair or overpainting is rare in a panel painting of this date. 
In the painting Virgin and Child with St. Anne, the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful"  and harkens back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle. What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ Child as he plays roughly with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice.  This painting, which was copied many times, influenced Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto,  and through them Pontormo and Correggio. The trends in composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese.
Leonardo was a prolific draughtsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi, The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper.  His earliest dated drawing is a Landscape of the Arno Valley, 1473, which shows the river, the mountains, Montelupo Castle and the farmlands beyond it in great detail.   [aa] According to art historian Ludwig Heydenreich, this is "The first true landscape in art."  Massimo Polidoro says that it was the first landscape "not to be the background of some religious scene or a portrait. It is the first [documented] time where a landscape was drawn just for the sake of it." 
Among his famous drawings are the Vitruvian Man, a study of the proportions of the human body the Head of an Angel, for The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre a botanical study of Star of Bethlehem and a large drawing (160×100 cm) in black chalk on coloured paper of The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National Gallery, London.  This drawing employs the subtle sfumato technique of shading, in the manner of the Mona Lisa. It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in the Louvre. 
Other drawings of interest include numerous studies generally referred to as "caricatures" because, although exaggerated, they appear to be based upon observation of live models. Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them. [‡ 12] There are numerous studies of beautiful young men, often associated with Salaì, with the rare and much admired facial feature, the so-called "Grecian profile." [ab] These faces are often contrasted with that of a warrior.  Salaì is often depicted in fancy-dress costume. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479 showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli, hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de' Medici, in the Pazzi conspiracy.  In his notes, Leonardo recorded the colours of the robes that Baroncelli was wearing when he died.
Like the two contemporary architects Donato Bramante (who designed the Belvedere Courtyard) and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Leonardo experimented with designs for centrally planned churches, a number of which appear in his journals, as both plans and views, although none was ever realised.  
Renaissance humanism recognised no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are sometimes considered as impressive and innovative as his artistic work.  These studies were recorded in 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and natural philosophy (the forerunner of modern science). They were made and maintained daily throughout Leonardo's life and travels, as he made continual observations of the world around him.  Leonardo's notes and drawings display an enormous range of interests and preoccupations, some as mundane as lists of groceries and people who owed him money and some as intriguing as designs for wings and shoes for walking on water. There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirlpools, war machines, flying machines and architecture. 
These notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes, were largely entrusted to Leonardo's pupil and heir Francesco Melzi after the master's death.  These were to be published, a task of overwhelming difficulty because of its scope and Leonardo's idiosyncratic writing.  Some of Leonardo's drawings were copied by an anonymous Milanese artist for a planned treatise on art c. 1570 .  After Melzi's death in 1570, the collection passed to his son, the lawyer Orazio, who initially took little interest in the journals.  In 1587, a Melzi household tutor named Lelio Gavardi took 13 of the manuscripts to Pisa there, the architect Giovanni Magenta reproached Gavardi for having taken the manuscripts illicitly and returned them to Orazio. Having many more such works in his possession, Orazio gifted the volumes to Magenta. News spread of these lost works of Leonardo's, and Orazio retrieved seven of the 13 manuscripts, which he then gave to Pompeo Leoni for publication in two volumes one of these was the Codex Atlanticus. The other six works had been distributed to a few others.  After Orazio's death, his heirs sold the rest of Leonardo's possessions, and thus began their dispersal. 
Some works have found their way into major collections such as the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, the Louvre, the Biblioteca Nacional de España, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, which holds the 12-volume Codex Atlanticus, and the British Library in London, which has put a selection from the Codex Arundel (BL Arundel MS 263) online.  Works have also been at Holkham Hall, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and in the private hands of John Nicholas Brown I and Robert Lehman.  The Codex Leicester is the only privately owned major scientific work of Leonardo it is owned by Bill Gates and displayed once a year in different cities around the world.
Most of Leonardo's writings are in mirror-image cursive.   Since Leonardo wrote with his left hand, it was probably easier for him to write from right to left.  [ac] Leonardo used a variety of shorthand and symbols, and states in his notes that he intended to prepare them for publication.  In many cases a single topic is covered in detail in both words and pictures on a single sheet, together conveying information that would not be lost if the pages were published out of order.  Why they were not published during Leonardo's lifetime is unknown. 
Leonardo's approach to science was observational: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail and did not emphasise experiments or theoretical explanation. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although he did teach himself Latin. In the 1490s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book Divina proportione, published in 1509.  While living in Milan, he studied light from the summit of Monte Rosa.  Scientific writings in his notebook on fossils have been considered as influential on early palaeontology. 
The content of his journals suggest that he was planning a series of treatises on a variety of subjects. A coherent treatise on anatomy is said to have been observed during a visit by Cardinal Louis d'Aragon's secretary in 1517.  Aspects of his work on the studies of anatomy, light and the landscape were assembled for publication by Melzi and eventually published as A Treatise on Painting in France and Italy in 1651 and Germany in 1724,  with engravings based upon drawings by the Classical painter Nicolas Poussin.  According to Arasse, the treatise, which in France went into 62 editions in fifty years, caused Leonardo to be seen as "the precursor of French academic thought on art." 
While Leonardo's experimentation followed scientific methods, a recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as a scientist by Fritjof Capra argues that Leonardo was a fundamentally different kind of scientist from Galileo, Newton and other scientists who followed him in that, as a "Renaissance Man", his theorising and hypothesising integrated the arts and particularly painting.  [ page needed ]
Anatomy and physiology
Leonardo started his study in the anatomy of the human body under the apprenticeship of Verrocchio, who demanded that his students develop a deep knowledge of the subject.  As an artist, he quickly became master of topographic anatomy, drawing many studies of muscles, tendons and other visible anatomical features.
As a successful artist, Leonardo was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome. From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre. Leonardo made over 240 detailed drawings and wrote about 13,000 words towards a treatise on anatomy.  Only a small amount of the material on anatomy was published in Leonardo's Treatise on painting.  During the time that Melzi was ordering the material into chapters for publication, they were examined by a number of anatomists and artists, including Vasari, Cellini and Albrecht Dürer, who made a number of drawings from them. 
Leonardo's anatomical drawings include many studies of the human skeleton and its parts, and of muscles and sinews. He studied the mechanical functions of the skeleton and the muscular forces that are applied to it in a manner that prefigured the modern science of biomechanics.  He drew the heart and vascular system, the sex organs and other internal organs, making one of the first scientific drawings of a fetus in utero.  The drawings and notation are far ahead of their time, and if published would undoubtedly have made a major contribution to medical science. 
Leonardo also closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage. He drew many figures who had significant facial deformities or signs of illness.   Leonardo also studied and drew the anatomy of many animals, dissecting cows, birds, monkeys, bears, and frogs, and comparing in his drawings their anatomical structure with that of humans. He also made a number of studies of horses. 
Leonardo's dissections and documentation of muscles, nerves, and vessels helped to describe the physiology and mechanics of movement. He attempted to identify the source of 'emotions' and their expression. He found it difficult to incorporate the prevailing system and theories of bodily humours, but eventually he abandoned these physiological explanations of bodily functions. He made the observations that humours were not located in cerebral spaces or ventricles. He documented that the humours were not contained in the heart or the liver, and that it was the heart that defined the circulatory system. He was the first to define atherosclerosis and liver cirrhosis. He created models of the cerebral ventricles with the use of melted wax and constructed a glass aorta to observe the circulation of blood through the aortic valve by using water and grass seed to watch flow patterns. Vesalius published his work on anatomy and physiology in De humani corporis fabrica in 1543. 
Engineering and inventions
During his lifetime, Leonardo was also valued as an engineer. With the same rational and analytical approach that moved him to represent the human body and to investigate anatomy, Leonardo studied and designed many machines and devices. He drew their “anatomy” with unparalleled mastery, producing the first form of the modern technical drawing, including a perfected "exploded view" technique, to represent internal components. Those studies and projects collected in his codices fill more than 5,000 pages.  In a letter of 1482 to the lord of Milan Ludovico il Moro, he wrote that he could create all sorts of machines both for the protection of a city and for siege. When he fled from Milan to Venice in 1499, he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack. In 1502, he created a scheme for diverting the flow of the Arno river, a project on which Niccolò Machiavelli also worked.   He continued to contemplate the canalization of Lombardy's plains while in Louis XII's company  and of the Loire and its tributaries in the company of Francis I.  Leonardo's journals include a vast number of inventions, both practical and impractical. They include musical instruments, a mechanical knight, hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, finned mortar shells, and a steam cannon.  
Leonardo was fascinated by the phenomenon of flight for much of his life, producing many studies, including Codex on the Flight of Birds (c. 1505 ), as well as plans for several flying machines, such as a flapping ornithopter and a machine with a helical rotor.  A 2003 documentary by British television station Channel Four, titled Leonardo's Dream Machines, various designs by Leonardo, such as a parachute and a giant crossbow, were interpreted and constructed.   Some of those designs proved successful, whilst others fared less well when tested.
Research performed by Marc van den Broek revealed older prototypes for more than 100 inventions that are ascribed to Leonardo. Similarities between Leonardo's illustrations and drawings from the Middle Ages and from Ancient Greece and Rome, the Chinese and Persian Empires, and Egypt suggest that a large portion of Leonardo's inventions had been conceived before his lifetime. Leonardo's innovation was to combine different functions from existing drafts and set them into scenes that illustrated their utility. By reconstituting technical inventions he created something new. 
In his notebooks, Leonardo first stated the ‘laws’ of sliding friction in 1493.  His inspiration for investigating friction came about in part from his study of perpetual motion, which he correctly concluded was not possible.  His results were never published and the friction laws were not rediscovered until 1699 by Guillaume Amontons, with whose name they are now usually associated.  For this contribution, Leonardo was named as the first of the 23 "Men of Tribology" by Duncan Dowson. 
Leonardo's fame within his own lifetime was such that the King of France carried him away like a trophy, and was claimed to have supported him in his old age and held him in his arms as he died. Interest in Leonardo and his work has never diminished. Crowds still queue to see his best-known artworks, T-shirts still bear his most famous drawing, and writers continue to hail him as a genius while speculating about his private life, as well as about what one so intelligent actually believed in. 
The continued admiration that Leonardo commanded from painters, critics and historians is reflected in many other written tributes. Baldassare Castiglione, author of Il Cortegiano (The Courtier), wrote in 1528: ". Another of the greatest painters in this world looks down on this art in which he is unequalled. "  while the biographer known as "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote, c. 1540 : "His genius was so rare and universal that it can be said that nature worked a miracle on his behalf. "  Vasari, in the enlarged edition of Lives of the Artists (1568) [‡ 13] introduced his chapter on Leonardo with the following words:
In the normal course of events many men and women are born with remarkable talents but occasionally, in a way that transcends nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by Heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such abundance that he leaves other men far behind, all his actions seem inspired and indeed everything he does clearly comes from God rather than from human skill. Everyone acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty, who displayed infinite grace in everything that he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied he solved with ease.
The 19th century brought a particular admiration for Leonardo's genius, causing Henry Fuseli to write in 1801: "Such was the dawn of modern art, when Leonardo da Vinci broke forth with a splendour that distanced former excellence: made up of all the elements that constitute the essence of genius. "  This is echoed by A.E. Rio who wrote in 1861: "He towered above all other artists through the strength and the nobility of his talents." 
By the 19th century, the scope of Leonardo's notebooks was known, as well as his paintings. Hippolyte Taine wrote in 1866: "There may not be in the world an example of another genius so universal, so incapable of fulfilment, so full of yearning for the infinite, so naturally refined, so far ahead of his own century and the following centuries."  Art historian Bernard Berenson wrote in 1896: "Leonardo is the one artist of whom it may be said with perfect literalness: Nothing that he touched but turned into a thing of eternal beauty. Whether it be the cross section of a skull, the structure of a weed, or a study of muscles, he, with his feeling for line and for light and shade, forever transmuted it into life-communicating values." 
The interest in Leonardo's genius has continued unabated experts study and translate his writings, analyse his paintings using scientific techniques, argue over attributions and search for works which have been recorded but never found.  Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, said: "Because of the multiplicity of interests that spurred him to pursue every field of knowledge. Leonardo can be considered, quite rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. Man is as uncomfortable today, faced with a genius, as he was in the 16th century. Five centuries have passed, yet we still view Leonardo with awe." 
Twenty-first-century author Walter Isaacson based much of his biography of Leonardo  on thousands of notebook entries, studying the personal notes, sketches, budget notations, and musings of the man whom he considers the greatest of innovators. Isaacson was surprised to discover a "fun, joyous" side of Leonardo in addition to his limitless curiosity and creative genius. 
On the 500th anniversary of Leonardo's death, the Louvre in Paris arranged for the largest ever single exhibit of his work, called Leonardo, between November 2019 and February 2020. The exhibit includes over 100 paintings, drawings and notebooks. Eleven of the paintings that Leonardo completed in his lifetime were included. Five of these are owned by the Louvre, but the Mona Lisa was not included because it is in such great demand among general visitors to the Louvre it remains on display in its gallery. Vitruvian Man, however, is on display following a legal battle with its owner, the Gallerie dell'Accademia in Venice. Salvator Mundi [ad] was also not included because its Saudi owner did not agree to lease the work.  
The Mona Lisa, considered Leonardo's magnum opus, is often regarded as the most famous portrait ever made.   The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time,  and Leonardo's Vitruvian Man drawing is also considered a cultural icon. 
While Leonardo was certainly buried in the collegiate church of Saint Florentin at the Château d'Amboise in 12 August 1519, the current location of his remains is unclear.   Much of Château d'Amboise was damaged during the French Revolution, leading to the church's demolition in 1802.  Some of the graves were destroyed in the process, scattering the bones interred there and thereby leaving the whereabouts of Leonardo's remains subject to dispute a gardener may have even buried some in the corner of the courtyard. 
In 1863, fine-arts inspector general Arsène Houssaye received an imperial commission to excavate the site and discovered a partially complete skeleton with a bronze ring on one finger, white hair, and stone fragments bearing the inscriptions "EO", "AR", "DUS", and "VINC"—interpreted as forming "Leonardus Vinci".    The skull's eight teeth corresponds to someone of approximately the appropriate age and a silver shield found near the bones depicts a beardless Francis I, corresponding to the king's appearance during Leonardo's time in France. 
Houssaye postulated that the unusually large skull was an indicator of Leonardo's intelligence author Charles Nicholl describes this as a "dubious phrenological deduction."  At the same time, Houssaye noted some issues with his observations, including that the feet were turned towards the high altar, a practice generally reserved for laymen, and that the skeleton of 1.73 metres (5.7 ft) seemed too short.  Art historian Mary Margaret Heaton wrote in 1874 that the height would be appropriate for Leonardo.  The skull was allegedly presented to Napoleon III before being returned to the Château d'Amboise, where they were re-interred in the chapel of Saint Hubert in 1874.   A plaque above the tomb states that its contents are only presumed to be those of Leonardo. 
It has since been theorized that the folding of the skeleton's right arm over the head may correspond to the paralysis of Leonardo's right hand.    In 2016, it was announced that DNA tests would be conducted to determine whether the attribution is correct.  The DNA of the remains will be compared to that of samples collected from Leonardo's work and his half-brother Domenico's descendants  it may also be sequenced. 
In 2019, documents were published revealing that Houssaye had kept the ring and a lock of hair. In 1925, his great-grandson sold these to an American collector. Sixty years later, another American acquired them, leading to their being displayed at the Leonardo Museum in Vinci beginning on 2 May 2019, the 500th anniversary of the artist's death.  
- ^ ab See Nicholl (2005, pp. 17–20) and Bambach (2019, p. 24) for further information on the dispute and uncertainty surrounding Leonardo's exact birthplace.
- ^ abEnglish:/ ˌ l iː ə ˈ n ɑːr d oʊ d ə ˈ v ɪ n tʃ i , ˌ l iː oʊ ˈ -, ˌ l eɪ oʊ ˈ -/ LEE -ə- NAR -doh də VIN -chee, LEE -oh-, LAY -oh-
- ^Italian:[leoˈnardo di ˈsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃi] ( listen ) The inclusion of the title 'ser' (shortening of Italian Messer or Messere, title of courtesy prefixed to the first name) indicates that Leonardo's father was a gentleman.
- ^ The diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio relays a precise account: "There was born to me a grandson, son of Ser Piero [fr] , on 15 April, a Saturday, at the third hour of the night."  Ser Antonio records Leonardo being baptized the following day by Piero di Bartolomeo at the parish of Santa Croce [it] . 
- ^ See Nicholl (2005, pp. 26–30) for further information of Leonardo's mother and Antonio di Piero Buti del Vacca.
- ^ It has been suggested that Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East "or at least, from the Mediterranean" or even of Chinese descent. According to art critic Alessandro Vezzosi, head of the Leonardo Museum in Vinci, there is evidence that Piero owned a slave called Caterina.  The reconstruction of one of Leonardo's fingerprints shows a pattern that matches 60% of people of Middle Eastern origin, suggesting the possibility that Leonardo may have had Middle Eastern blood. The claim is refuted by Simon Cole, associate professor of criminology, law and society at the University of California at Irvine: "You can't predict one person's race from these kinds of incidences, especially if looking at only one finger". More recently, historian Martin Kemp, after digging through overlooked archives and records in Italy, found evidence that Leonardo's mother was a young local woman identified as Caterina di Meo Lippi. 
- ^ See Kemp & Pallanti (2017, pp. 65–66) for detailed table on Ser Piero's marriages.
- ^ He also never wrote about his father, except a passing note of his death in which he overstates his age by three years.  Leonardo's siblings caused him difficulty after his father's death in a dispute over their inheritance. 
- ^ See Nicholl (2005, p. 30) for an English translation, see Nicholl (2005, p. 506) for the original Italian.
- ^ The humanist influence of Donatello's David can be seen in Leonardo's late paintings, particularly John the Baptist. 
- ^ The "diverse arts" and technical skills of Medieval and Renaissance workshops are described in detail in the 12th-century text On Divers Arts by Theophilus Presbyter and in the early 15th-century text Il Libro Dell'arte O Trattato Della Pittui by Cennino Cennini.
- ^ That Leonardo joined the guild by this time is deduced from the record of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca in the company's register, Libro Rosso A, 1472–1520, Accademia di Belle Arti. 
- ^ On the back he wrote: "I, staying with Anthony, am happy," possibly in reference to his father.
- ^ Leonardo later wrote in the margin of a journal, "The Medici made me and the Medici destroyed me." 
- ^ In 2005, the studio was rediscovered during the restoration of part of a building occupied for 100 years by the Department of Military Geography. 
- ^ Both works are lost. The entire composition of Michelangelo's painting is known from a copy by Aristotole da Sangallo, 1542.  Leonardo's painting is known only from preparatory sketches and several copies of the centre section, of which the best known, and probably least accurate, is by Peter Paul Rubens. 
- ^ Pope Leo X is quoted as saying, "This man will never accomplish anything! He thinks of the end before the beginning!" 
- ^ It is unknown for what occasion the mechanical lion was made, but it is believed to have greeted the king at his entry into Lyon and perhaps was used for the peace talks between the French king and Pope Leo X in Bologna. A conjectural recreation of the lion has been made and is on display in the Museum of Bologna. 
- ^ Identified via its similarity to Leonardo's presumed self-portrait
- ^ ". Messer Lunardo Vinci [sic] . an old graybeard of more than 70 years . showed His Excellency three pictures . from whom, since he was then subject to a certain paralysis of the right hand, one could not expect any more good work." 
- ^ This scene is portrayed in romantic paintings by Ingres, Ménageot and other French artists, as well as Angelica Kauffman.
- ^ ab On the day of Leonardo's death, a royal edict was issued by the king at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a two-day journey from Clos Lucé. This has been taken as evidence that King Francis cannot have been present at Leonardo's deathbed, but the edict was not signed by the king. 
- ^ Each of the sixty paupers were to have been awarded in accord with Leonardo's will. 
- ^ The painting, which in the 18th century belonged to Angelica Kauffman, was later cut up. The two main sections were found in a junk shop and cobbler's shop and were reunited.  It is probable that outer parts of the composition are missing.
- ^ Whether or not Vasari had seen the Mona Lisa is the subject of debate. The opinion that he had not seen the painting is based mainly on the fact that he describes the Mona Lisa as having eyebrows. Daniel Arasse in Leonardo da Vinci discusses the possibility that Leonardo may have painted the figure with eyebrows that were subsequently removed. (They were not fashionable in the mid-16th century.)  Pascal Cotte said in 2007 that, according to his analysis of high-resolution scans, the Mona Lisa had eyebrows and eyelashes that have been subsequently removed. 
- ^ Jack Wasserman writes of "the inimitable treatment of the surfaces" of the painting. 
- ^ This work is now in the collection of the Uffizi, Drawing No. 8P.
- ^ The "Grecian profile" has a continuous straight line from forehead to nose-tip, the bridge of the nose being exceptionally high. It is a feature of many Classical Greek statues.
- ^ He also drew with his left hand, his hatch strokes "slanting down from left to right—the natural stroke of a left-handed artist".  He also sometimes wrote conventionally with his right hand. 
- ^Salvator Mundi, a painting by Leonardo depicting Jesus holding an orb, sold for a world record US$450.3 million at a Christie's auction in New York, 15 November 2017.  The highest known sale price for any artwork was previously US$300 million, for Willem de Kooning's Interchange, which was sold privately in September 2015.  The highest price previously paid for a work of art at auction was for Pablo Picasso's Les Femmes d'Alger, which sold for US$179.4 million in May 2015 at Christie's New York. 
Dates of works
- ^The Adoration of the Magi
- , p. 27): c. 1481–1482 , p. 338): 1481 , p. 56): c. 1480–1482 , p. 222): 1481/1482
- , p. 41): c. 1483–1493 , p. 339): between 1483 and 1486 , p. 164): 1483–c. 1485 , p. 223): 1483–1484/1485
- , p. 189): c. 1507–1514 , p. 340): c. 1508 , p. 63): c. 1500 onwards , p. 248): c. 1508–1516
- , p. 6): c. 1473–1474 , p. 338): c. 1472–1475 , p. 15): c. 1472–1476 , p. 216): c. 1473–1475
- , p. 31): c. 1481–1482 , p. 338): probably c. 1480 , p. 139): c. 1488–1490 , p. 221): c. 1480–1482
- , p. 49): c. 1491 , p. 339): 1489–1490 , p. 111): c. 1489–1490 , p. 226): 1489/1490
- , p. 67): c. 1495–1497 , p. 339): between 1494 and 1498 , p. 252): 1492–1497/1498 , p. 230): c. 1495–1498
- , p. 127): c. 1503–1515 , p. 340): c. 1503–1504 1513–1514 , p. 48): c. 1502 onwards , p. 240): c. 1503–1506 1510
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 258
- ^Vasari 1965, pp. 258–259
- ^ abVasari 1965, p. 265
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 256
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 270
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 253
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 257
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 263
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 262
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 267
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 266
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 261
- ^Vasari 1965, p. 255
- ^"A portrait of Leonardo c.1515–18". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020 . Retrieved 26 September 2020 .
- ^ abZöllner 2019, p. 20.
- ^ abcdefgKemp 2003.
- ^ abcdHeydenreich 2020.
- ^Zöllner 2019, p. 250.
- Kaplan, Erez (1996). "Roberto Guatelli's Controversial Replica of Leonardo da Vinci's Adding Machine". Archived from the original on 29 May 2011 . Retrieved 19 August 2013 .
- ^Capra 2007, pp. 5–6.
- ^Brown 1998, p. 7.
- ^Kemp 2006, p. 1.
- ^ abcdefBrown 1998, p. 5.
- ^Nicholl 2005, p. 17.
- ^Vezzosi 1997, p. 13.
- ^ abcdefOttino della Chiesa 1967, p. 83.
- ^Nicholl 2005, p. 20.
- ^Bambach 2019, pp. 16, 24.
- ^ abMarani 2003, p. 13.
- ^Bambach 2019, p. 16.
- ^ abcBambach 2019, p. 24.
- ^Nicholl 2005, p. 18.
- ^Kemp & Pallanti 2017, p. 6.
- Hooper, John (12 April 2008). "Da Vinci's mother was a slave, Italian study claims". The Guardian . Retrieved 16 August 2015 .
- Alberge, Dalya (21 May 2017). "Tuscan archives yield up secrets of Leonardo's mystery mother". The Guardian . Retrieved 5 June 2019 .
- ^Kemp & Pallanti 2017, p. 65.
- ^ abWallace 1972, p. 11.
- ^Magnano 2007, p. 138.
- ^Brown 1998, pp. 1, 5.
- ^Marani 2003, p. 12.
- ^Brown 1998, p. 175.
- ^Nicholl 2005, p. 28.
- ^Nicholl 2005, p. 30, 506.
- ^Nicholl 2005, p. 30.
- ^ abcRosci 1977, p. 13.
- ^ abcHartt 1970, pp. 127–133.
- Bacci, Mina (1978) . The Great Artists: Da Vinci. Translated by Tanguy, J. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
- ^ abcdefghijklmBortolon 1967.
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstArasse 1998.
- ^Rosci 1977, p. 27.
- ^Martindale 1972.
- ^ abcdRosci 1977, pp. 9–20.
- ^ Piero della Francesca, On Perspective for Painting (De Prospectiva Pingendi)
- ^ ab
- Rachum, Ilan (1979). The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 88.
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 13.
- ^ abcd
- Polidoro, Massimo (2019). "The Mind of Leonardo da Vinci, Part 1". Skeptical Inquirer. Center for Inquiry. 43 (2): 30–31.
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 15.
- Clark, Kenneth Kemp, Martin (26 November 2015). Leonardo da Vinci (Newition ed.). United Kingdom: Penguin. p. 45. ISBN978-0-14-198237-3 .
- ^ abWasserman 1975, pp. 77–78.
- ^ abWallace 1972, pp. 53–54.
- ^ abcWilliamson 1974.
- ^Kemp 2011.
- ^Franz-Joachim Verspohl [de] , Michelangelo Buonarroti und Leonardo Da Vinci: Republikanischer Alltag und Künstlerkonkurrenz in Florenz zwischen 1501 und 1505 (Wallstein Verlag, 2007), p. 151.
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 79.
- ^ Leonardo, Codex C. 15v, Institut of France. Trans. Richter
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 84.
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 65.
- ^ abcdOttino della Chiesa 1967, p. 85.
- Owen, Richard (12 January 2005). "Found: the studio where Leonardo met Mona Lisa". The Times. London . Retrieved 5 January 2010 .
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 124.
- "Mona Lisa – Heidelberg discovery confirms identity". University of Heidelberg. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013 . Retrieved 4 July 2010 .
- Delieuvin, Vincent (15 January 2008). "Télématin". Journal Télévisé. France 2 Télévision.
- Coughlan, Robert (1966). The World of Michelangelo: 1475–1564 . et al. Time-Life Books. p. 90.
- Goldscheider, Ludwig (1967). Michelangelo: paintings, sculptures, architecture. Phaidon Press. ISBN978-0-7148-1314-1 .
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, pp. 106–07.
- ^ abcdeWallace 1972, p. 145.
- "Achademia Leonardi Vinci". Journal of Leonardo Studies & Bibliography of Vinciana. VIII: 243–44. 1990.
- ^ abcOttino della Chiesa 1967, p. 86.
- ^ abWallace 1972, pp. 149–150.
- ^ abcdeWallace 1972, p. 150.
- Ohlig, Christoph P. J., ed. (2005). Integrated Land and Water Resources Management in History. Books on Demand. p. 33. ISBN978-3-8334-2463-2 .
- Gillette, Henry Sampson (2017). Leonardo da Vinci: Pathfinder of Science. Prabhat Prakashan. p. 84.
- ^ Georges Goyau, François I, Transcribed by Gerald Rossi. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI. Published 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 4 October 2007
- Miranda, Salvador (1998–2007). "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Antoine du Prat" . Retrieved 4 October 2007 .
- ^Wallace 1972, pp. 163, 164.
- "Reconstruction of Leonardo's walking lion" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 25 August 2009 . Retrieved 5 January 2010 .
- Brown, Mark (1 May 2019). "Newly identified sketch of Leonardo da Vinci to go on display in London". The Guardian . Retrieved 2 May 2019 .
- ^ ab
- Strickland, Ashley (4 May 2019). "What caused Leonardo da Vinci's hand impairment?". CNN . Retrieved 4 May 2019 .
- ^ ab
- McMahon, Barbara (1 May 2005). "Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished ' ". The Guardian . Retrieved 2 May 2019 .
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 163.
- ^ ab
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- Saplakoglu, Yasemin (4 May 2019). "A Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci May Reveal Why He Never Finished the Mona Lisa". Live Science . Retrieved 5 May 2019 .
- ^ ab
- Bodkin, Henry (4 May 2019). "Leonardo da Vinci never finished the Mona Lisa because he injured his arm while fainting, experts say". The Telegraph . Retrieved 6 May 2019 .
- ^ abCharlier, Philippe Deo, Saudamini. "A physical sign of stroke sequel on the skeleton of Leonardo da Vinci?". Neurology. 4 April 2017 88(14): 1381–82
- Ian Chilvers (2003). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 354. ISBN978-0-19-953294-0 .
- ^ Antonina Vallentin, Leonardo da Vinci: The Tragic Pursuit of Perfection, (New York: The Viking Press, 1938), 533
- ^ White, Leonardo: The First Scientist
- ^Kemp 2011, p. 26.
- ^ abc
- Florentine editorial staff (2 May 2019). "Hair believed to have belonged to Leonardo on display in Vinci". The Florentine . Retrieved 4 May 2019 .
- Rossiter, Nick (4 July 2003). "Could this be the secret of her smile?". Daily Telegraph. London . Retrieved 3 October 2007 .
- ^Gasca, Nicolò & Lucertini 2004, p. 13.
- ^ MacCurdy, Edward, The Mind of Leonardo da Vinci (1928) in Leonardo da Vinci's Ethical Vegetarianism
- ^Bambach 2003.
- ^ Cartwright Ady, Julia. Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Milan, 1475–1497. Publisher: J.M. Dent, 1899 Cartwright Ady, Julia. Isabella D'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 1474–1539. Publisher J.M. Dent, 1903.
- ^ Sigmund Freud, Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci, (1910)
- ^ abIsaacson 2017.
- "Leonardo, ladies' man: why can't we accept that Da Vinci was gay?". the Guardian. 26 March 2021 . Retrieved 27 March 2021 .
- ^ Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p. 298
- ^Arasse 1998, pp. 11–15.
- ^ These qualities of Leonardo's works are discussed in Hartt (1970, pp. 387–411)
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, pp. 88, 90.
- ^Marani 2003, p. 338.
- ^ abWasserman 1975, pp. 104–106.
- ^Wasserman 1975, p. 108.
- "The Mysterious Virgin". National Gallery, London. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007 . Retrieved 27 September 2007 .
- ^ ab
- "Da Vinci's Lady with an Ermine among Poland's "Treasures" – Event – Culture.pl" . Retrieved 18 November 2017 .
- Kemp, M. The Lady with an Ermine in the exhibition Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Washington-New Haven-London. p. 271.
- ^Wasserman 1975, p. 124.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 97.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 98.
- "Segui il restauro" [Follow the restoration]. Castello Sforzesco – Sala delle Asse (in Italian). Archived from the original on 16 October 2018 . Retrieved 19 October 2018 .
- Seracini, Maurizio (2012). "The Secret Lives of Paintings" (lecture) .
- "The Mona Lisa had brows and lashes". BBC News. 22 October 2007 . Retrieved 22 February 2008 .
- ^Wasserman 1975, p. 144.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 103.
- ^Wasserman 1975, p. 150.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 109.
- ^ abcdefgh
- Popham, A.E. (1946). The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci.
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 30.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 102.
- ^Hartt 1970, pp. 391–392.
- ^ abcWallace 1972, p. 169.
- ^ abc
- Keele Kenneth D (1964). "Leonardo da Vinci's Influence on Renaissance Anatomy". Med Hist. 8 (4): 360–70. doi:10.1017/s0025727300029835. PMC1033412 . PMID14230140.
- Bean, Jacob Stampfle, Felice (1965). Drawings from New York Collections I: The Italian Renaissance. Greenwich, CT: Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 81–82.
- Major, Richard Henry (1866). Archaeologia: Or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity, Volume 40, Part 1. London: The Society. pp. 15–16.
- Calder, Ritchie (1970). Leonardo & the Age of the Eye. 630 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. p. 275. CS1 maint: location (link)
- "Sketches by Leonardo". Turning the Pages. British Library . Retrieved 27 September 2007 .
- ^ abDa Vinci 1971, p. x.
- Livio, Mario (2003) . The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number (First trade paperback ed.). New York City: Broadway Books. p. 136. ISBN0-7679-0816-3 .
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 31.
- Ciaccia, Chris (15 April 2019). "Da Vinci was ambidextrous, new handwriting analysis shows". Fox News . Retrieved 15 April 2019 .
- ^ Windsor Castle, Royal Library, sheets RL 19073v–74v and RL 19102.
- ^ Baucon, A. 2010. Da Vinci’s Paleodictyon: the fractal beauty of traces. Acta Geologica Polonica, 60(1). Accessible from the author's homepage
- O'Malley Saunders (1982). Leonardo on the Human Body. New York: Dover Publications.
- ^Ottino della Chiesa 1967, p. 117.
- ^Capra 2007.
- Davinci, Leonardo (2011). The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci. Lulu. p. 736. ISBN978-1-105-31016-4 .
- ^ abAlastair Sooke, Daily Telegraph, 28 July 2013, "Leonardo da Vinci: Anatomy of an artist", accessed 29 July 2013.
- Mason, Stephen F. (1962). A History of the Sciences . New York: Collier Books. p. 550.
- Jones, Roger (2012). "Leonardo da Vinci: anatomist". British Journal of General Practice. 62 (599): 319. doi:10.3399/bjgp12X649241. ISSN0960-1643. PMC3361109 . PMID22687222.
- Guarnieri, M. (2019). "Reconsidering Leonardo". IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine. 13 (3): 35–38. doi:10.1109/MIE.2019.2929366. S2CID202729396.
- Masters, Roger (1996). Machiavelli, Leonardo and the Science of Power.
- Masters, Roger (1998). Fortune is a River: Leonardo Da Vinci and Niccolò Machiavelli's Magnificent Dream to Change the Course of Florentine History. Simon & Schuster. ISBN978-0-452-28090-8 .
- ^Wallace 1972, p. 164.
- "Leonardo's Dream Machines (TV Movie 2003)". IMDb.
- ^British Library online gallery (retrieved 10 October 2013)
- Marc van den Broek (2019), Leonardo da Vinci Spirits of Invention. A Search for Traces, Hamburg: A.TE.M., ISBN978-3-00-063700-1
- ^ ab
- Hutchings, Ian M. (15 August 2016). "Leonardo da Vinci׳s studies of friction". Wear. 360–361: 51–66. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2016.04.019. ISSN0043-1648.
- ^Isaacson 2017, pp. 194–197.
- Dowson, Duncan (1 October 1977). "Men of Tribology: Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)". Journal of Lubrication Technology. 99 (4): 382–386. doi: 10.1115/1.3453230 . ISSN0022-2305.
- Castiglione, Baldassare (1528). "Il Cortegiano" (in Italian).
- ^ "Anonimo Gaddiani", elaborating on Libro di Antonio Billi, 1537–1542
- Fuseli, Henry (1801). "Lectures". II. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
- Rio, A.E. (1861). "L'art chrétien" (in French) . Retrieved 19 May 2021 .
- Taine, Hippolyte (1866). "Voyage en Italie" (in Italian). Paris, Hachette et cie . Retrieved 19 May 2021 .
- Berenson, Bernard (1896). The Italian Painters of the Renaissance.
- Henneberger, Melinda. "ArtNews article about current studies into Leonardo's life and works". Art News Online. Archived from the original on 5 May 2006 . Retrieved 10 January 2010 .
- Italie, Hillel (7 January 2018). "NonFiction: Biography honors 'fun, joyous' sides of genius da Vinci". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Associated Press. p. G6.
- Crow, Kelly (16 November 2017). "Leonardo da Vinci Painting 'Salvator Mundi' Sells for $450.3 Million". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN0099-9660 . Retrieved 16 November 2017 .
- ^ abLeonardo da Vinci painting 'Salvator Mundi' sold for record $450.3 million, Fox News, 16 November 2017
- "Leonardo da Vinci's Unexamined Life as a Painter". The Atlantic. 1 December 2019 . Retrieved 1 December 2019 .
- "Louvre exhibit has most da Vinci paintings ever assembled". Aleteia. 1 December 2019 . Retrieved 1 December 2019 .
- ^Turner 1993, p. 3.
- Gardner, Helen (1970). Art through the Ages . New York, Harcourt, Brace & World. pp. 450–56. ISBN9780155037526 .
- ^ Vitruvian Man is referred to as "iconic" at the following websites and many others: Vitruvian Man, Fine Art Classics, Key Images in the History of Science Curiosity and difference at the Wayback Machine (archived 30 January 2009) "The Guardian: The Real da Vinci Code"
- ^ abcdeNicholl 2005, p. 502.
- ^ abIsaacson 2017, p. 515.
- ^ abcde
- Montard, Nicolas (30 April 2019). "Léonard de Vinci est-il vraiment enterré au château d'Amboise?" [Is Leonardo da Vinci really buried at the Château d'Amboise?]. Ouest-France (in French) . Retrieved 4 May 2019 .
- ^Heaton 1874, p. 204, "The skeleton, which measured five feet eight inches, accords with the height of Leonardo da Vinci. The skull might have served for the model of the portrait Leonardo drew of himself in red chalk a few years before his death.".
- ^ abc
- Knapton, Sarah (5 May 2016). "Leonardo da Vinci paintings analysed for DNA to solve grave mystery". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 21 August 2017 .
- Newman, Lily Hay (6 May 2016). "Researchers Are Planning to Sequence Leonardo da Vinci's 500-Year-Old Genome". Slate Magazine . Retrieved 4 May 2019 .
- Messia, Hada Robinson, Matthew (30 April 2019). "Leonardo da Vinci's 'hair' to undergo DNA testing". CNN . Retrieved 3 May 2019 .
- Anonimo Gaddiano (c. 1530). "Leonardo da Vinci". Codice Magliabechiano. in
- Lives of Leonardo da Vinci (Lives of the Artists). Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 2019. pp. 103–114. ISBN978-1-60606-621-8 .
- Giovio, Paolo (c. 1527). "The Life of Leonardo da Vinci". Elogia virorum illustrium. in
- Lives of Leonardo da Vinci (Lives of the Artists). Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 2019. pp. 103–114. ISBN978-1-60606-621-8 .
- Vasari, Giorgio (1965) . "The Life of Leonardo da Vinci". Lives of the Artists. Translated by George Bull. Penguin Classics. ISBN978-0-14-044164-2 .
- Arasse, Daniel [fr] (1998). Leonardo da Vinci. Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Konecky & Konecky. ISBN978-1-56852-198-5 . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Bambach, Carmen C., ed. (2003). Leonardo da Vinci, Master Draftsman. New York City, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN978-0-300-09878-5 .
- Bambach, Carmen C. (2019). Leonardo da Vinci Rediscovered. 1, The Making of an Artist: 1452–1500. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN978-0-300-19195-0 .
- Bortolon, Liana (1967). The Life and Times of Leonardo. London: Paul Hamlyn.
- Brown, David Alan (1998). Leonardo Da Vinci: Origins of a Genius. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN978-0-300-07246-4 .
- Capra, Fritjof (2007). The Science of Leonardo . US: Doubleday. ISBN978-0-385-51390-6 .
- Ottino della Chiesa, Angela (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. Penguin Classics of World Art. London, UK: Penguin Books. ISBN978-0-14-008649-2 .
- Clark, Kenneth (1961). Leonardo da Vinci. City of Westminster, London, England: Penguin Books. OCLC187223.
- Da Vinci, Leonardo (1971). Taylor, Pamela (ed.). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. New American Library.
- Gasca, Ana Millàn Nicolò, Fernando Lucertini, Mario (2004). Technological Concepts and Mathematical Models in the Evolution of Modern Engineering Systems . Birkhauser. ISBN978-3-7643-6940-8 .
- Hartt, Frederich (1970). A History of Italian Renaissance Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN978-0-500-23136-4 .
- Heaton, Mary Margaret (1874). Leonardo Da Vinci and His Works: Consisting of a Life of Leonardo Da Vinci. New York City, New York: Macmillan Publishers. OCLC1706262.
- Isaacson, Walter (2017). Leonardo da Vinci. New York City, New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN978-1-5011-3915-4 .
- Kemp, Martin (2006) . Leonardo Da Vinci: The Marvellous Works of Nature and Man. Oxford, England: Oxford, England. ISBN978-0-19-920778-7 .
- Kemp, Martin (2011) . Leonardo (Revised ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0-19-280644-4 .
- Kemp, Martin Pallanti, Giuseppe (2017). Mona Lisa: The People and the Painting. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0-19-874990-5 .
- Kemp, Martin (2019). Leonardo da Vinci: The 100 Milestones. New York City, New York: Sterling. ISBN978-1-4549-304-26 .
- Magnano, Milena (2007). Leonardo, collana I Geni dell'arte. Mondadori Arte. ISBN978-88-370-6432-7 .
- Marani, Pietro C. (2003) . Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings. New York City, New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN978-0-8109-3581-5 .
- Martindale, Andrew (1972). The Rise of the Artist . Thames and Hudson. ISBN978-0-500-56006-8 .
- Nicholl, Charles (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind. London, England: Penguin Books. ISBN978-0-14-029681-5 .
- O'Malley, Charles D. Sounders, J.B. de C.M. (1952). Leonardo on the Human Body: The Anatomical, Physiological, and Embryological Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. With Translations, Emendations and a Biographical Introduction. New York City, New York: Henry Schuman.
- Pedretti, Carlo (1982). Leonardo, a study in chronology and style. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Johnson Reprint Corp. ISBN978-0-3844-5281-7 .
- Pedretti, Carlo (2006). Leonardo da Vinci. Surrey, England: Taj Books International. ISBN978-1-8440-6036-8 .
- Popham, A.E. (1946). The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. Jonathan Cape. ISBN978-0-224-60462-8 .
- Richter, Jean Paul (1970). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci . Dover. ISBN978-0-486-22572-2 . volume 2: 0-486-22573-9. A reprint of the original 1883 edition
- Rosci, Marco (1977). Leonardo. Bay Books Pty Ltd. ISBN978-0-85835-176-9 .
- Syson, Luke Keith, Larry Galansino, Arturo Mazzotta, Antoni Nethersole, Scott Rumberg, Per (2011). Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan. London, England: National Gallery. ISBN978-1-85709-491-6 .
- Turner, A. Richard (1993). Invention Leonardo. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN978-0-520-08938-9 .
- Wallace, Robert (1972) . The World of Leonardo: 1452–1519. New York, New York: Time-Life Books.
- Wasserman, Jack (1975). Leonardo da Vinci. New York, New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN978-0-8109-0262-6 .
- Williamson, Hugh Ross (1974). Lorenzo the Magnificent. Michael Joseph. ISBN978-0-7181-1204-2 .
- Vezzosi, Alessandro (1997). Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man. 'New Horizons' series. Translated by Bonfante-Warren, Alexandra (English translation ed.). London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN978-0-500-30081-7 .
- Zöllner, Frank (2015). Leonardo (2nd ed.). Cologne, Germany: Taschen. ISBN978-3-8365-0215-3 .
- Zöllner, Frank (2019) . Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings (Anniversary ed.). Cologne, Germany: Taschen. ISBN978-3-8365-7625-3 .
- Brown, David Alan (1983). "Leonardo and the Idealized Portrait in Milan". Arte Lombarda. 64 (4): 102–116. JSTOR43105426. (subscription required)
- Cremante, Simona (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor. Giunti. ISBN978-88-09-03891-2 .
- Giacomelli, Raffaele (1936). Gli scritti di Leonardo da Vinci sul volo. Roma: G. Bardi.
- Heydenreich, Ludwig Heinrich (28 April 2020). "Leonardo da Vinci | Biography, Art & Facts | Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Kemp, Martin (2003). "Leonardo da Vinci" . Grove Art Online. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T050401. ISBN978-1-884446-05-4 . (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Lupia, John N. (Summer 1994). "The Secret Revealed: How to Look at Italian Renaissance Painting". Medieval and Renaissance Times. 1 (2): 6–17. ISSN1075-2110.
See Kemp (2003) and Bambach (2019, pp. 442–579) for extensive bibliographies
- Vanna, Arrighi Bellinazzi, Anna Villata, Edoardo, eds. (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: la vera immagine: documenti e testimonianze sulla vita e sull'opera [Leonardo da Vinci: the true image: documents and testimonies on life and work] (in Italian). Florence: Giunti Editore. ISBN978-88-09-04519-4 .
- Vecce, Carlo (2006). Leonardo (in Italian). Forward by Carlo Pedretti. Rome: Salerno. ISBN978-88-8402-548-7 .
- Winternitz, Emanuel (1982). Leonardo da Vinci As a Musician . New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN978-0-300-02631-3 .
- Leonardo da Vinci: anatomical drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. New York City, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1983. ISBN978-0-87099-362-6 .
- , a database of Leonardo's life and works maintained by Martin Kemp and Marina Wallace on the National Gallery website
- , online bibliography (in Italian) , archive of drawings, notes and manuscripts at Project Gutenberg at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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Leonardo da Vinci Timeline - History
Every corner of western civilization has been touched by Leonardo da Vinci’s genius and creativity – a creativity that responded to a virtually limitless range of scientific and artistic challenges.
Leonardo’s “Horse That Never Was” would have assured his unparalleled reputation as a sculptor. This is the romantic story of Leonardo’s unfulfilled passion, the resurrection of the idea by Charles C. Dent, and the gift of The Horse to the people of Italy.
During the 17 years that followed the Duke of Sforza’s 1482 commission of the largest equine statue ever conceived, Leonardo da Vinci also worked on one of his masterpiece paintings, The Last Supper, and a series of portraits of Italian nobles. He also produced a city plan for Milan, new weapons designs, and a defense system for the castle that the Duke probably should have taken more seriously. The Duke also expected Leonardo to create stage sets, manage gala parties and compose rhymes and puzzles for the ladies of the Court. Royal sponsorship clearly did not always release Leonardo to pursue his artistic endeavors.
A 24-foot clay model would finally dominate the landscape in a vineyard near the Duke’s castle. The Horse was to be cast in bronze according to a revolutionary method that was detailed in Leonardo’s carefully-created notebooks.
Scholar Carlo Pedretti describes this place, “That site, which is today a dense and noisy urban district, was then a pleasant expanse of open fields, dotted with trees and shrubs, or neatly kept as orchards, vineyards or citrus groves. One can well imagine the skyline of such a peaceful landscape, bathed in the yellow light of a misty morning of a September day in the Lombard plain … and see that skyline suddenly interrupted by the imposing silhouette of Leonardo’s colossal clay model, standing there with the foreboding of a Trojan horse.”
That must have been the way the Gascon bowmen of the French troops saw it when they entered Milan on Sept. 10, 1499. Instead of admiring the model’s majesty, however, the victorious French archers used it for target practice, reducing it tragically to a mound of clay.
Leonardo would not attempt the project again and died on May 2, 1519. Legend has it that he never ceased mourning his lost horse.
Many of the working sketches for The Horse were lost over the centuries that followed. One set of notebooks, known as the Windsor Collection, came into the possession of the British royal family. Another collection, now known as the Codex Madrid II, was discovered in Madrid’s Biblioteca Nacional in 1966. An article in the Sept. 1977 issue of National Geographic magazine about Leonardo would launch a new existence not only for Leonardo’s horse, but also for Charles C. Dent, a retired airline pilot, artist and art collector living in Fogelsville, Pa. The romantic legend, with its combination of creative genius and human frailty, cast its spell over Dent. It even seemed appropriate that Charlie Dent spent so much of his time flying, an experience for which Leonardo yearned.
Already an admirer of Leonardo and a Renaissance man in his own right, Charlie Dent decided that Leonardo and Italy should have The Horse – a little late to be sure, but as a gesture of appreciation from the American people for it acknowledges the immense cultural, artistic, and scientific legacy of the Italian Renaissance for the American culture. He took up the horse’s reins and remained at full gallop for the rest of his life.
Dent presided over years of research and planning that responded to intriguing possibilities created by looking from a new angle, a shift in light, or a change in position. The 20th century evolution of The Horse was marked by a determination to interpret the master’s vision accurately. There was only one Leonardo, and it was inconceivable to think of replicating The Horse exactly as it existed in his mind. The project’s enduring goal was to produce a sensitive, appropriate monument to Leonardo’s genius and his contributions to today’s world. As Dent emphasized, “It is the gesture itself which is most important.”
To formalize The Horse project, Charles C. Dent formed Leonardo da Vinci’s Horse, Inc. (LDVHI) officially in 1982. The organization’s stated purposes were to honor the Italian Renaissance and its immense cultural, artistic and scientific legacy to honor Leonardo da Vinci and his extraordinary genius to honor the noble horse, man’s companion throughout history to encourage curiosity, imagination, and creativity among youth and to stand as a symbol of friendship between nations.
Thoughtful decisions reflected basic elements of other Leonardo works as well as the classical images of his time. Carlo Pedretti, a member of the Council of Scholars and a renowned Leonardo scholar, recommended that the position of the head should more closely resemble that of the late 15th century classical vision of The Horse. Sculptor Nina Akamu, hired in 1997 to complete The Horse after the death of Charles C. Dent, studied Leonardo’s entire body of work along with his sketches of The Horse to interpret the design correctly.
Charlie Dent’s talent for promoting commitment to Leonardo’s vision created a large roster of unsung sculptors, writers, business people, teachers, and horse lovers who contributed time, effort, and funding. Determination and modern technology could not minimize the challenges that Dent and his supporters faced. Charlie’s will, primarily a bequest to The Horse, provided the substantial sum that took the model to the foundry. With the additional support from donors in all 50 American states, The Horse was installed in Milan and unveiled on Sept. 10, 1999. Many of these contributors made a pilgrimage to Milan to celebrate the realization of his dream.
The Horse is faithful to Leonardo’s original drawings, and is in keeping with the spirit of Leonardo and the Renaissance. In a broader context, the significance of The Horse, much like the Statue of Liberty, goes beyond all natural frontiers. Il Cavallo will stand for a thousand years as a symbol of permanence against the destructiveness of war and as a symbol of friendship between nations.
TIMELINE: The History of Human-Powered Flight
Ever since Leonardo Da Vinci sketched plans for a bird-like machine in one of his notebooks, hundreds of inventors have tried to engineer their way into the skies. But flying under human power — and human power alone — isn't an easy task.
Credits: Adam Cole, Nelson Hsu / NPR
Sources: Royal Aeronautical Society, Don Monroe, NASA, Fred To, "Human Powered Flying," by Chris Roper
In 1894 Octave Chanute published a volume called "Progress In Flying." A more appropriate title would have been "Lack Of Progress In Flying." The book's detailed list of failed flying machines – from Da Vinci's famous flapping ornithopter to the fins an overconfident French nobleman strapped to his arms and legs – is very humorous. The book's detailed list of injuries suffered by would-be aviators is not.
Many inventors and engineers (including Chanute himself) ignored this book's clear but unstated warning. In a triumph of human will (or obstinacy . or just plain denial) they kept trying to get off the ground under their own steam. And they kept failing.
Finally, in 1977, men flew. No longer the short hops and unsatisfying glides of previous decades – this was real flight! Super light craft — with human beings huffing and puffing in the cockpit — could bank and turn like real aircraft, cross the English Channel, and race for top speeds.
In 1980, at the height of this human-powered fervor, the American Helicopter Society announced the Sikorsky Prize - named after helicopter pioneer Igor Sikorsky.
It was nearly a decade before a human-powered helicopter – CalPoly's Da Vinci III – even got off the ground. That first flight lasted 8 seconds. Five years later another craft stayed up for 20 seconds, with a maximum height of just 8 inches. For three decades, these were the only attempts. Now, two teams of young engineers are battling for the prize.
Leonardo da Vinci - Biography and Legacy
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, described as one of the most gifted and inventive men in history, was born in 1452 in a village near the town of Vinci, Tuscany.
An illegitimate son of Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine notary, and Caterina, a peasant girl, he was brought up on the family estate in Anchiano by his paternal grandfather. His father married a sixteen-year old girl, Albiera, with whom Leonardo was close, but who died young. Leonardo was the oldest of 12 siblings and his family never treated his illegitimacy as a stigma.
Early Training and Work (1452-1481)
At the age of 14 Leonardo moved to Florence to begin an apprenticeship with Andrea del Verrocchio, an artist who had been a student of Early Renaissance master Donatello. Verrocchio was an important artist in the court of Medici, a powerful family equally noted for its political involvement and generous patronage of the arts, of which the success of the Renaissance is often attributed. Florence was an important artistic center in Renaissance Italy, which attracted many talented budding artists including Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, and Lorenzo di Credi. It is indicative of his father's influence in the city that Leonardo was able to begin his apprenticeship in such a prestigious art studio.
Artists of this period were deeply immersed in the study of the humanities as a way to fully understand man's place in the world. Under Verocchio's mentorship, Leonardo's early genius was extensively nurtured. In addition to drawing, painting, and sculpture, he developed an interest in anatomy, architecture, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. This education helped hone a profound imagination, which later led to his planning of marvelous inventions, evidenced by his many drawings of military weapons and mechanical contraptions which contribute to his reputation as a genius today.
Customary to the time, the output of Verrocchio's studio would have been a collaborative effort between master and apprentices. Two pictures accredited to Verrocchio in particular, The Baptism of Christ, 1475, and The Annunciation, 1472-1475, are seen by art historians, including Giorgio Vasari, to have evidence of Leonardo's lighter brush strokes compared to Verrocchio's heavier hand.
In 1472, after six years of apprenticeship, Leonardo became a member of the Guild of St Luke, a Florentine group of artists and medical doctors. Although his father set him up with a studio of his own, Leonardo continued to work in Verrocchio's studio as an assistant for the next four years.
In 1476, Leonardo was accused of sodomy with three other men, but was acquitted for lack of corroborative evidence, which is often attributed to the fact that his friends came from powerful families. Homosexuality was, at the time, illegal, and punishable not only by imprisonment, public humiliation, but also death. Perhaps because of the chastisement following such a traumatic event, he kept a low profile over the next few years, of which not much is known.
One of his earliest independent commissions was received in 1481 from the monks of San Donato a Scopeto to paint the Adoration of the Magi. Leonardo would interrupt work on the commission to move to Milan after receiving an offer from the Duke of Milan to work in his court. There is a lot of speculation why the move to Milan was so necessary at this time, some harking back to the sodomy charge a few years earlier. But it seems more likely that Leonardo was seduced by the invitation from the flamboyant Milanese Court, and the opportunity for progressing his reputation and career.
Mature Period (1482-1513)
Leonardo worked in the Court of Milan from 1482 until 1499. A noted perfectionist, he spent a great deal of time exploring human anatomy, particularly in the way in which human bodies moved, were built and proportioned, and how they interacted in social engagement and communication, as well as their means of gesture and expression. An exhaustive endeavor for certain, and this may be part of the reason why there are so few finished works yet an extraordinarily large library of drawings executed in intricate detail, as well as cartoons which acted as full scale preparatory drawings for paintings. These drawings show not only his unparalleled mastery of observation, but also his ability as an artist to understand and convey human emotion.
It was during this period that he experimented with radically new and different painting techniques. One of the techniques Leonardo is famous for is his ability to create a smoky effect, which was coined sfumato. Through his deep knowledge of glazes and brushstrokes, he developed the technique, which allowed for edges of color and outline to flow into each other to emphasize the soft modulation of flesh and fabric, as well as the remarkable translucence of hard surfaces such as crystal or the tactility of hair. The intimate authenticity that resulted in his figures and subjects seemed to mirror reality in ways that had not been seen prior. A good example of this is his depiction of an orb in the painting, Salvatore Mundi (1490-1500).
Yet, as with many revolutionary inventions, some of his experimentations would only reveal problems later. The most notable of which was seen in his great fresco masterpiece of the period, The Last Supper (1495-98). It was painted on the refectory wall of the convent of Santa Maria del Grazie through the use of oil-based paint on wet plaster to encourage the sfumato effect, which eventually caused the paint to flake off from the wall.
In 1485, he went on a diplomatic mission to Hungary on behalf of the Duke to meet the influential King of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus, and, while therewas called on to use his meticulous design skills to prepare court festivals, as well as engineering and architectural projects, including plans for the dome of the cathedral in Milan.
For his last unfinished project before leaving Milan, Leonardo was commissioned to cast a five-meter high equestrian bronze sculpture called Gran Cavallo commemorating the founder of the Sforza dynasty. In 1503, a clay model of the intended sculpture was displayed during the wedding of Emperor Maximilian to Bianca Maria Sforza, emphasizing the importance of the anticipated work. Unfortunately, the project was never finished and the conquering French Army who had taken Milan in 1499, ended up using the model for target practice. It has been said that the bronze slated for use in the sculpture was repurposed for cannon casting in what inevitably proved to be the unsuccessful defense of Milan from Charles VIII in the war with France.
Following the French invasion of 1499, and the overthrow of the Duke of Milan, Leonardo left for Venice accompanied by Salai, his long time friend and assistant, who had been living with Leonardo since the age of ten and who remained with him until the artist's death.
In Venice, Leonardo was employed as a military engineer where his main commission was to design naval defense systems for the city under threat of Turkish military advances in Europe. Once done, he decided to return to Florence in 1500, where he lived with his companion as a guest of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata.
In 1502, Leonardo secured service in the Court of Cesare Borgia, an important member of an influential family, as well as son of Pope Alexander VI, and commander of the papal army. He was employed as a military engineer and accompanied Borgia on his travels throughout Italy. His duties included making maps to aid with military defense, as well as the construction of a dam to ensure an uninterrupted supply of water to the canals from the River Arno. During the diversion of the river project, he met Niccolò Machiavelli, who, at the time, was a noted scribe and political observer for Florence. It has been said that Leonardo exposed Machiavelli to the concepts of applied science, and that he had a great influence on the man who would go on to be called the Father of Modern Political Science.
Leonardo returned for a second time to Florence in 1503, and was welcomed as a celebrity when he again joined the Guild of St Luke. This return spurred one of the most productive periods of painting for the artist including preliminary work on his Virgin and Child with Saint Anne (1503-19), as well as the Mona Lisa (1503-19), and unfinished Battle of Anghiari (1503-05), which was later copied by the artist Peter Paul Rubens.
In 1508, Leonardo returned to Milan where he remained for the next five years enjoying the patronage of Charles d'Amboise, the French Governor of Milan, and King Louis XII. This was a period in which Leonardo delved heavily into scientific activities, which included anatomical, mathematic, mechanical, and botanical studies and the creation of his famous flying machine. Notable commissions during this period included work on a Villa for Charles, bridge building, and a project to create a waterway to link Milan with Lake Como. He also devised efficient military weapons such as an early example of the machine gun, and his famous large crossbow.
It was also during this time that Leonardo met his pupil Francesco Melzi, who became his companion until his death. It may be surmised that at this point in his life and career, Leonardo was finally able to live discreetly as a gay man, his accomplishments and acclaim providing a safe shelter from the kind of traumatic and punitive stigmatizing he experienced in his younger years.
Late period (1513-19)
In 1513, after the temporary expulsion of the French from Milan, Leonardo went to Rome where he spent the next three years. He was brought to the attention of the French King François I who offered him a permanent position as "first painter and engineer" of the French Royal Court. He was given a residence at Clos Lucé, close to the king's Château d'Amboise. François I, a pivotal figure in the French Renaissance, not only became the sort of patron Leonardo needed in his old age, demanding little of him, but also is reputed to have been a close friend of the artist. Vasari described the friendship saying, "The King. was accustomed frequently and affectionately to visit him."
Leonardo spent most of these late years dedicated to arranging his scientific papers and notes instead of painting, although his last painting, St John the Baptist (1513), was most likely made during this time. This collation of notebooks, representing a lifetime culmination of extraordinary investigative study and ability within such a vast number of disciplines, has proved his most enduring legacy. His opinions on architecture, mathematics, engineering, science, and human anatomy, as well as his philosophy on art, painting, drawing, and Humanism presented intelligence so profound that he became recognized as a true genius.
Leonardo died on May 2, 1519 at Clos Lucé, naming his companion, Francesco Melzi, as principal beneficiary of his artistic and scientific estates. His vineyards were divided between Salai and his brothers.
The reverence with which Leonardo was regarded is epitomized by the apocryphal story of François I's attendance at his death. Vasari described Leonardo as having "breathed [his] last in the arms of the king." Their legendary friendship inspired the 1818 painting by Ingres, François I Receives the Last Breaths of Leonardo da Vinci, in which Leonardo is shown as dying in the arms of the King.
Leonardo was originally interred in the chapel of St Florentin at the Chateau d'Amboise in the Loire Valley, but the building was destroyed during the French revolution. Although it is believed that he was reburied in the smaller chapel of St Hubert, Amboise, the exact location remains unconfirmed.
The Legacy of Leonardo da Vinci
It is hard to concisely describe the legacy of a man as multi-talented as Leonardo da Vinci. He developed artistic techniques that are considered perfection. His use of vanishing point, the soft blurring effect in his sfumato method, his understanding the relationship between light and dark in chiaroscuro, and his enigmatic facial expressions created a mesmerizing and realistic quality to his paintings that had never before been seen. While much of his art focused on religion and portraits, painted in the time of the High Renaissance, which heralded the end of the dark ages in western civilization, it was his techniques together with his masterly composition that contributed the greatest influence on Western art. In fact, to this day, The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa remain some of the world's most recognizable and iconic works of art, reproduced endlessly on posters and prints, and deeply embedded in contemporary popular culture as pieces of everlasting historical significance.
But then, what of his inventions, his anatomical research, his topographical drawings, as well as his engineering, mechanical, and architectural achievements? While many of his inventions such as the flying machine, the helicopter, or the parachute remained in mere idea form, and unfeasible in practice, that does not detract from the recognition of Leonardo's inquisitive mind being years ahead of its time. The same is true of the accuracy of his anatomical drawings, investigations into blood circulation, topography, and other mechanical engineering marvels which include the mitred lock, his contribution to accurate time-keeping, or the bobbin winder which had an immediate impact on local industry at the time. His investigation into enhancing military weapons heralded the tanks and machine guns so familiar to us today. He was indeed the first true "Renaissance man."
As Sigmund Freud said of him, he was a man, "who awoke too early in the darkness, while the others were all still asleep."
Leonardo da Vinci Timeline - History
Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, scientist and genius who best represents the ideals of the Renaissance period. He was one of the greatest painters of all times. The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa are two of his best known paintings.
Da Vinci was born in Vinci, Italy in 1452. His early education was at home where he studied reading, writing and arithmetic. When he was 20 years old he became an apprentice in the studio of Andrea Verrocchio learning painting, sculpture and acquiring technical and mechanical skills. His highly inventive style and technical skills were quickly recognized, and he eventually began to work for himself in Florence as a painter and also sketching pumps, military weapons, and other machines. Da Vinci was a great engineer and inventor who designed buildings, bridges, canals, forts and war machines. He was also fascinated by birds and flying and drew designs of fantastic flying machines. Da Vinci kept huge notebooks of his fantastic designs, sketches and ideas.
In his notebooks, da Vinci wrote using "mirror writing", writing backwards from right to left. In order to read this type of writing, you must place a mirror beside it and read the reversed image in the mirror. No one knows why Leonardo wrote this way, but some believe he was trying to avoid theft of his ideas. Others point out that he was left-handed, which made it easier for him to write from right to left.
In 1482, da Vinci began to work for the Duke of Milan as a painter and engineer. In this capacity he not only painted, but designed buildings and hydraulic and mechanical systems. It was during this time that da Vinci developed a fascination with geometry. He particularly enjoyed finding mechanical solutions to geometric problems.
Da Vinci was also intrigued with the study of optics and conducted extensive investigations and made drawings about the nature of light, reflections, and shadows. Even though it was not until over 100 years later that the first telescope was invented by Hans Lippershey, da Vinci realized the possibility of using lenses and mirrors to view heavenly bodies. In his notebooks he writes of:
. making glasses to see the Moon enlarged. and . in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the base of a concave mirror. The image of the planet reflected by the base will show the surface of the planet much magnified.
In 1499, the French armies defeated the Duke of Milan and da Vinci returned to Florence to become the chief architect and engineer for the ruling Borgia family. He worked on plans to divert the River Arno and to build a canal to give Florence access to the sea. During this period, engineering and scientific work was given precedence over his painting. He was involved in studying and working in hydraulics, anatomy, mechanics, mathematics and optics.
The reputation of da Vinci's genius became known throughout Europe. In 1516, he was invited to France by the King to become his head painter, architect and mechanic. Da Vinci was allowed to work on any project he wished. He spent much of this time, writing, arranging and editing his studies. He did not paint much but finished his paintings of Saint John the Baptist, Mona Lisa, and the Virgin and Child with Saint Anne. Da Vinci died in 1519 and was buried in the Church of Saint Valentine at Amboise, France.
The Rennaisance started with the decline in the powers of the Roman Catholic Church. The humanists emerged who believed that individuals had important contributions to make in the world, rather than that, the only ideas were of the Church.
How did Renaissance affect science, arts and literature?
- During Renaissance, science, arts, architecture, philosophy and literature underwent a transformation in techniques and thought. Man became the measure of all things, as earlier stated by the Greek Philosopher Protagoras(490 BC to 420 BC). Some of the Renaissance thought patterns did reflect the early Greek and Roman philosophies. Renaissance art and philosophies brought human emotions into focus.
- Renaissance art did not reject Christianity. However, there was a subtle shift in how intellectuals approached religion and other cultural areas of life. Printing was also discovered during this period.
- During the Renaissance, art and money went hand in hand. The church was one the patrons apart from wealthy noblemen, who were businessmen.
Leonardo da Vinci’s contribution to the Renaissance period
Leonardo da Vinci’s brilliance crossed multiple disciplines, that he was referred to as the Renaissance man. Apart from the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, two works of art he is famous for, he also did extensive studies and invented various machines and also surgery.
Leonardo da Vinci also created the map of the anatomical proportions of the human body, a very important study based on the notes of the architect Vitruvius. The defining of man as the measure of all things, the essence of Renaissance is reflected in this.