Texas Christian University

Texas Christian University

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Texas Christian University, or TCU, is an independent, self-governing university, located five miles from downtown Fort Worth, Texas.Texas Christian began its services as the Addran Male and Female Academy in September 1873, by Addison Clark and his brother Randolph – two former Confederate officers.Opening with a student body of 13, it was housed in a commodious building in Thorp Springs, Texas. In 1889, the college, under the auspices of Brotherhood of the Christian Church, became AddRan Christian University.For the next few years, the university underwent financial difficulty, which resulted in its move to Waco, in 1896. The Board of Trustees, in 1902, appointed a new president to replace Addison, and the college adopted the name Texas Christian University.One of its schools was named AddRan College of Humanities & Social Sciences - to honor the founding brothers. After a massive fire attack in Waco, the university was forced to relocate to its present location, in 1910.Presently, TCU is comprised of AddRan College of Humanities & Social Sciences, the Brite Divinity School, the M.J. Neeley School of Business, College of Communication, School of Education, College of Fine Arts, College of Health & Human Sciences, and the College of Science & Engineering. The university’s Institute of Behavioral Research is among the top-three drug-related research institutes in the world.TCU offers 98 undergraduate majors and 20 graduate degrees in 59 areas, including six doctoral fields of study. Intensive English Program, honors program, graduate studies, Trio programs, and online courses are also offered.The university is situated on 260 acres, about 25 miles from Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.The TCU Library contains more than 1,900,000 items, while the Oscar E. Veterans Plaza, a memorial to respect the students and faculty who served in World War I or World War II, is also located on campus.

World History 1500 to Present: Home

For this course, think about the information you need. Look at the questions from the assignment and identify the main ideas, and combine them with the name of the nation you are studying. For example:

  • [Name of nation] AND Colonialism
  • Colonial [Name of nation]
  • [Name of nation] AND independence

Also think of synonyms. For example, synonyms for colonialism could be:

Use these combinations of words when searching in library databases.

Our History

In the early 1950s, a group of ranchers came to TCU to propose the establishment of a special educational program to address the needs of the ranching business. Mr. Charles Pettit, Walnut Springs, Texas, Mr. Roy Parks, Midland, Texas, and Mr. Milton Daniel, Breckenridge, Texas led this group of ranchers. With the support of the Directors of the Texas Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association and other ranchers, this group presented their proposal to Chancellor Sadler who listened to their proposal and agreed to work with them in establishing an educational program to meet their needs. Chancellor Sadler challenged this group to establish funding for the program and to develop the curriculum that they felt was necessary to meet the needs of the students. The Ewing Halsell Foundation of San Antonio made a $50,000 donation toward the endowment of the program. This contribution was followed by others and the program began in the fall of 1955.

Chancellor Sadler hired Mr. Arthur Courtade as the first director of the program and challenged him with the establishment of the program. In formulating the curriculum and criteria for the Ranch Management Program, Mr. Courtade was advised by Mr. Pettit, Mr. Parks, Mr. Daniel, along with Mr. Lewis Marshall, manager of the Walsh Ranches, Aledo Mr. Clyde Wells, manager of the Black Ranch, Granbury Mr. Bill Roberts, manager of the Flat Top Ranch, Walnut Springs, and others. This group combined their educational backgrounds and knowledge of ranching with proven agricultural practices to establish a curriculum that would address the needs of the modern day ranching business.

The founders wanted the program to concentrate on beef cattle production, but also to educate the students in as many phases of the ranching business as possible to best utilize the natural resources available. The program was developed with the idea of working closely with successful ranchers to learn from their operations and to incorporate business practices that are being used on a daily basis in progressive operations. To best utilize this concept, the curriculum includes visiting ranching operations and other agricultural businesses to learn from operating managers. These visits are structured similar to visiting professors except that the students are going to an on-site classroom. Students receive information from over sixty producers and professionals during the field trip portion of the coursework.

At the onset of the program, Mr. Courtade utilized classroom instructors from different areas of the agricultural business to assist him by teaching classes. One such individual was D.V.M. Floyd R. Keen, a large animal veterinarian from Fort Worth. He helped establish the method of teaching classes in 3-hour blocks to match his schedule and observed that the material retention rate of the students increased by the concentration of time on task. At that time, Mr. Courtade began presenting all classes in the three-hour format. Other business professionals were brought in to assist in classes such as record keeping and finance and these lectures were presented in the same manner.

In June of 1961, Mr. John Merrill was hired as the new director of the program. Under the leadership of Mr. Merrill, the program curriculum was expanded from nine subject areas to twelve. Since enrollment is limited and all classes are required by all students, Mr. Merrill added the requirement that the applicants to the program must have ranching experience to be admitted to the program. Each applicant to the program must apply to the Ranch Management Program for acceptance. Each applicant is required to come to the campus for a personal interview for evaluation of qualifications and dedication to the industry.

As the program grew and funds became available, the University employed more instructors with the needed skills to teach in the growing program. With the addition of staff, the program instituted an evening course for the general public. The courses offered in the evening division were comprised of materials drawn from the curriculum of the day classes. These classes were offered for individuals that were not able to attend the full-time classes.

In 1994, Mr. Merrill stepped down as director and Mr. Jim Link was named the third director of the Ranch Management Program. Mr. Link had served as an instructor and associate director under John Merrill’s leadership. He led the program onward and upward until resigning in 2005 to head the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration in Washington, D.C.

During the summer of 2006, a national search was conducted for the director position and in August, Kerry Cornelius was named the fourth director of the Ranch Management Program. Mr. Cornelius is a 1986 graduate of the Ranch Management Program and holds a Master’s Degree in Agriculture from Tarleton State University. Today the program staff is comprised of five faculty members, one program specialist, and one administrative assistant.

The core courses have maintained the basic principles that are utilized in production agriculture. However, the content of the courses is continually evolving as new technology is developed. When new practices or technology is introduced to the industry, the staff carefully evaluates the information, investigates where the practice is being utilized, and determines how to best incorporate the information into the curriculum. In some circumstances, the information is incorporated into fieldwork or with individuals that are utilizing the practices. The technology involved with production, marketing, and diversification of resources has changed significantly since the establishment of the program and will continue to change in the future.

In addition to the certification option, TCU began offering a Bachelor of Science in Ranch Management and a Ranch Management Minor, through the College of Science and Engineering. The bachelor’s degree recommends students minor in business, a superb combination for managing all kinds of resources. The Ranch Management Minor allows students to pursue a degree in another discipline such as Business, Economics, or Finance at TCU and utilize the certificate program as a minor to meet their graduation requirements. The Ranch Management Program will continue to adjust to the needs of the students who are being prepared to meet the challenges facing them as they enter into their careers.


I am Associate Professor of History and founding Chair of the Department of Comparative Race and Ethnic Studies at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth. My research examines coalition-building among African American, Chicanx-Latinx, and white community organizers across the long civil rights era, from the 1930s to the 1980s. I explore how a wide range of activists organized their separate bases and how and why they frequently built alliances across the color line. I weave together traditional written records from buried archives with new oral history interviews. With these sources, I write narrative histories that combine scholarly analysis with accessible prose for popular audiences. My work uses a relational framework to contribute to the separate fields of U.S. African American, Chicanx-Latinx, and labor and working-class histories, to 20 th Century U.S. history as a whole, and to the regional histories of the U.S. West and South. I also engage with the interdisciplinary fields of Latinx, African American, and Comparative Ethnic Studies. Putting these diverse fields into conversation reveals deeper insights into each of them.

My current project, Civil Rights in Black and Brown: Histories of Resistance and Struggle in Texas, uses more than 530 new interviews with on-the-ground organizers to reconstruct the history of the intersecting African American and Chicanx liberation movements across the Lone Star State. Ordinary men and women in the Lone Star State confronted directly the twin caste systems to which they had been assigned, transcending the tradition of state-sanctioned racial violence in a bold attempt to transform their communities from the ground up. They built not one but two liberation movements, and they did so, often, in intimate conversation with one another. Surviving and even thriving despite Juan Crow and Jim Crow, they withstood reprisals as they demanded not only access but also equity. They organized in creative ways for fair public services and created new institutions in their quest for educational and political self-determination. While most activists came together first and foremost within their own racial groups, our interviews show that they also created Black/Brown alliances that offered each partner support in their respective struggles against institutionalized racism. The research was supported by a National Endowment for the Humanities Collaborative Research Grant and is featured on NEH for All.

My first book, Blue Texas: The Making of a Multiracial Democratic Coalition in the Civil Rights Era, follows diverse activists as they organized their communities and built a formidable political coalition by the mid-1960s. Avoiding the poles of Black/Brown cooperation or conflict, the text recasts coalition-building as a process, one fraught with missteps but also immense potential. I show that intra-racial conflicts raged within each group, leading the most liberal, aggressive activists to cross the color line in order to outflank their self-declared “race leaders.” African American, Mexican American, and white activists forged a statewide alliance, the Democratic Coalition, which together took to the streets and revolutionized Texas politics. Their story reconnects the economic justice struggles of the 1930s and 70s to the “classical phase” of the Black freedom struggle in the 1950s and 60s, and it unveils militancy and pro-Black activism among members of the ostensibly conservative post-WWII Mexican American Generation. It reveals ongoing dynamism in the postwar Southern labor movement and shows how grassroots struggles reconfigured U.S. liberalism in the region and nation. Blue Texas won the Frederick Jackson Turner Award of the Organization of American Historians and best book awards from several state scholarly societies, including the National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies Tejas Foco.

My teaching draws on this research to create a democratic, inquiry-based learning environment. I teach community-engaged courses on oral history methods and the TCU Justice Journey, a distinctive experiential-learning course on the African American and Chicanx liberation struggles.

My service centers diversity, equity, and inclusion on campus and beyond. I was the founding Chair of our Department of Comparative Race and Ethnic Studies (CRES), which grew from a mere idea in 2015 to a full-fledged department with 4.5 dedicated positions, and more to come. In the community, I serve as co-chair of the Fort Worth Independent School District Racial Equity Committee and am an active member of United Fort Worth, a multicultural, grassroots organization advocating for immigrant rights, police accountability, and civic power for communities of color. A native of Reno, Nevada, I majored in Community Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz, before earning my graduate degrees in History at Duke University.

Texas Christian University

Texas Christian University was founded as Add-Ran College in 1873, when Addison and Randolph Clark moved their private school, begun in Fort Worth in 1869, to Thorp Spring. Chartered as Add-Ran Male and Female College in 1874, the school came under the control of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in 1889, and its name was changed to Add-Ran Christian University. It moved to Waco in 1895 and became Texas Christian University in 1902. Attendance at this time averaged 350&ndash400 students. In March 1910 a fire destroyed the main building. Fort Worth offered the institution a fifty-acre campus and $200,000, and the offer was accepted. In 1911 TCU moved onto its present campus in southwest Fort Worth. The first endowment, $25,000 from Lucas Charles Brite II, also came that year, and in 1914 Brite College of the Bible (renamed Brite Divinity School in 1963) was established. In 1911 or 1912 the university added the Fort Worth School of Medicine as a unit, but it was abandoned in 1918. A school of law was added in 1915 and closed in 1920. Early presidents included Ely Vaughn Zollars (1902&ndash06), whose administration was characterized by an emphasis on ministerial education Clinton Lockhart (1906&ndash11) Frederick D. Kershner (1912&ndash15) and acting president W. B. Parkes (1915&ndash16). Edward McShane Waits began his twenty-five-year term as president in September 1916. TCU was elected to membership in both the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and the Southwest Conference in 1922. The school's fiftieth anniversary in 1923 was marked by a gift that assured its survival: Mrs. Mary Couts Burnett left to TCU the majority of her estate, valued at $3 million, plus half interest in several thousand acres of ranchland. Particularly when oil production began on the land, the Burnett trust became the heart of the university's endowment. The Mary Couts Burnett Library was completed in 1924, the same year in which the campus was expanded to 187 acres. During 1926 and 1927 graduate courses, offered randomly throughout the preceding years, were integrated into a separate, organized graduate school. Except for three years during the Great Depression, enrollment growth was steady during the 1920s and 1930s and reached 2,000 for the first time in 1937. By then eight permanent brick buildings were on campus, and the school had been approved by the Association of American Universities. The School of Business was established in 1938. McGruder Ellis Sadler was elected president in 1941, and growth after World War II was rapid. A structure to house the School of Fine Arts was completed in 1949. Between 1950 and 1965 twenty-five buildings were constructed or acquired, including a science building, a chapel and religion center, a student center, a business building, an education building, a coliseum, a health center, dormitories, and apartments the stadium, the library, offices, and classrooms were enlarged.

By 1963 the university had purchased the 106-acre Worth Hills Golf Course adjoining the campus, bringing the total size of the campus to 237 acres. Five residence halls and a cafeteria were built on the Worth Hills land in 1964 later two additional residence halls and intramural and soccer fields were added. Growth was rapid. Entrance requirements were upgraded, programs of advanced study added, and Ph.D. programs approved. By the time of Sadler's retirement in 1965, Ph.D. programs were offered in psychology, physics, English, mathematics, chemistry, and history. James Mattox Moudy was TCU chancellor from 1965 to 1979. Major additions during this period included a research and classroom building that tripled the size of science facilities, a structure to house nursing and home economics, a large physical education and recreation building, a speech and hearing clinic, a school for elementary children with learning disabilities, and a twenty-three-court tennis center. The TCU Press was formally established in 1966 (although it had operated occasionally in previous years), and it began regular publication of books and monographs. Between 1965 and 1967 the university began participation in the Texas Association for Graduate Education and Research. A faculty assembly and senate were formed in 1967&ndash68, and a Phi Beta Kappa chapter was established on campus in 1971. William E. Tucker became chancellor in 1979. A building to house programs in visual arts and communication opened in 1981. The library, which celebrated the receipt of its millionth volume that year, was doubled in size in 1982. Its collections include the William Luther Lewis collection of rare books and an American presidency collection donated by A. M. Pate. In 1982 the university awarded its 40,000th degree, and in 1983 the endowment passed the $100 million mark. Intercollegiate athletics, particularly football, has been an important part of life at TCU. The university won Southwest Conference championships in football in 1929, 1932, 1938, 1944, 1951, 1955, and 1958 in the 1930s and 1940s, with Leo R. (Dutch) Meyer as coach, TCU teams were considered among the best in the nation. During the fourteen years Abe Martin coached before he retired in 1966, he took teams to at least four bowl games and had seven players named to All-American teams. The TCU basketball team won SWC championships in 1930, 1933, 1952, 1958, 1967, 1970, and 1986 the baseball team won championships in 1932 and 1955. In 1994 the university became a member of the Western Athletic Conference, from which it withdrew in 2001 to join Conference USA. In 2001 TCU had 375 full-time faculty members and approximately 7,600 students, and was organized into seven schools and colleges: the Add-Ran College of Humanities and Social Services, the M. J. Neely School of Business, the School of Education, the College of Fine Arts, the College of Communications, the College of Health and Human Services, and the College of Science and Engineering, plus an associated ranch management program and Brite Divinity School. The chancellor was Michael Ferrari.

Colby D. Hall, History of Texas Christian University (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1947). Jerome A. Moore, Texas Christian University: A Hundred Years of History (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1974). Joan Hewitt Swaim, Walking TCU (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1992).

History of Texas Christian University: A College of the Cattle Frontier

First published by TCU Press in 1947, Colby Hall’s book History of Texas Christian University: A College of the Cattle Frontier is the story of the first seventy-five years of the institution. Tracing the evolution of Add Ran College to Add Ran University, and ultimately to Texas Christian University, Hall shows the struggles and success in the transformation of a frontier college dedicated to educating and developing Christian leadership for all walks of life to a university dedicated to facing the challenges imposed in a new world frontier following World War II.

Drawing upon numerous sources, including many unpublished documents, personal correspondence, and the author’s own recollections of his association with the university, Hall provides a detailed account of the history of TCU—an account that is, at the same time, the story of how a great dream was realized by TCU’s founders.

Hall’s narrative skillfully weaves the development of the school into the history of Texas, at the same time elaborating upon the development of collegiate education in Texas and the establishment of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the state. Recognizing that TCU is much more than an institution, Hall specifically emphasizes the contributions of the people and personalities who helped shape the growth of the school.

Honors was first conceived in the front seat of a 1955 Plymouth station wagon as Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs James M. Moudy and Professor of Religion Paul Wassenich commuted to and from TCU. In the early 1960s TCU was a small regional school of four thousand students, and the two friends discussed how it could provide its best students with an enhanced level of study.

Under the direction of Moudy and Wassenich, the Honors Program was launched in 1962. A small program with only about 50 students and no faculty of its own, Honors at first functioned with no funding, a part-time director, and enrollment limited to juniors and seniors.

From the beginning, the central mission of Honors was defined as “the stimulation and encouragement of academic activity at the highest level,” and it was committed to an interdisciplinary curriculum and a co-curricular agenda. Both the Honors Program and later the Honors College have been dedicated to the promotion and recognition of intellectual achievement. In its years as a Program, Honors had limited resources and funding—an historical context that has continued to shape its situation since becoming a College in 2009.

With Paul Wassenich as its first Director (1962-68), Honors began at TCU by inviting the top 5 percent of students admitted in 1963 to participate in the “pre-Honors” phase of the new program. Candidates would undertake Honors study within their major, including the completion of a junior research seminar and an “an acceptable senior paper or its equivalent,” while also taking a series of four Honors colloquia (one per semester during the junior and senior years) “designed to teach the student to think in an interdisciplinary manner.” From these originally intertwined features, Departmental Honors and University Honors, versions of which remain as two distinct upper-division tracks available today, with a few students choosing to complete both.

From the beginning, the Honors colloquia were intended to develop rigorous, in-depth discussions of relevant issues and large questions. Covering four fundamental areas of human experience, the colloquia were first introduced as “The Nature of the Universe,” “The Nature of Man,” “The Nature of Values,” and “The Nature of Society.” The tradition of addressing relevant issues and large questions was carried forward, and the current upper-division colloquia include “On Human Nature,” “The Nature of Society,” and “The Nature of Values.” For more than 50 years Honors students have been asked to consider what it means to be human, how people can live together, and what is the value of life.

After Wassenich stepped down as Honors Director in 1968, the Program was carried forward by a succession of energetic and dedicated directors. Professor of Philosophy Ted Klein directed the Program from 1968 to 1972 Honors was then directed by two English professors, Fred Erisman, who led the program until 1974, and Keith Odom, who was director until 1981. The Honors Program was then administered by Professor of Chemistry Henry “Jim” Kelly until 1987, and in 1988 Professor of Religion David Grant took over as Director, followed in 1994 by Professor of History Kathryne McDorman, who supervised the Program until 2003, when Professor of Spanish Peggy Watson was appointed as the Honors Program’s last Director and then the John V. Roach Honors College’s first Dean. Under their able leadership Honors continued to grow and develop, contributing to TCU’s intellectual life in significant ways.

McDorman secured funding for the Fogelson Honors Forum. Beginning in 1998, the Fogelson lectures brought—and continue to bring—internationally recognized figures to campus. The inaugural Fogelson Forum was a presentation on Violence in America by Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander.

Two other important developments took place in the 1990s. By the end of the decade Honors attracted a record-breaking 250 new first-year Honors students, and for the first time Honors mounted its first “Abroad” experience when it offered a summer program in Edinburgh, Scotland.

With the number of students entering and graduating continuing to increase, the first decade of the twenty-first century was a period of dynamic growth and change. Paul and Judy Andrews endowed a new Honors College, naming it for their friend and mentor John V. Roach. Much of the groundwork for transitioning into a College was done during the 1990s by McDorman and her staff, but it was the Andrews endowment that made the change possible. The endowment was fully funded by June 1, 2009, and the new John V. Roach Honors College opened in November 2009.

How Much Student Debt Do History Graduates from TCU Have?

Student Debt of History Graduates with a Bachelor's Degree

While getting their bachelor's degree at TCU, history students borrow a median amount of $19,250 in student loans. This is not too bad considering that the median debt load of all history bachelor's degree recipients across the country is $23,250.

The typical student loan payment of a bachelor's degree student from the history program at TCU is $200 per month.

Texas Christian University - History

Not one but two civil rights movements flourished in mid-twentieth century Texas, and they did so in intimate conversation with one another. While most research on American race relations has utilized a binary analytical lens - examining either "black" vs. "white" or "Anglo" vs. "Mexican" - the Civil Rights in Black and Brown Oral History Project collects, interprets, and disseminates new oral history interviews with members of all three groups.

This website is a publicly accessible, free, and user-friendly multimedia digital humanities database that provides video clips from the interviews to researchers as well as teachers, students, journalists, activists, and the general public. Rather than streaming full interviews or displaying transcripts, this site indexes short clips and assigns each one its own metadata, including narrow subject terms and tags. Click here to read more about the project.

About the project | Number of clips on website: 7808 | Number of interviewees: 467

History of AED at TCU

On April 28, 1926, fifteen premedical students at the University of Alabama met with Dr. Jack P. Montgomery, Chairman of the Premedical Committee and Professor of Organic Chemistry, to formalize the organization of a new premedical honorary fraternity. A second chapter was installed at Howard College, now Samford University, in 1929. At the first national convention held at the University of Alabama on April 18, 1930, ten members representing five chapters and one petitioning group were in attendance. From these modest beginnings, Alpha Epsilon Delta has become the world's largest body devoted to premedical education, with a membership exceeding 125, 000 in over 200 chapters. Click here for more on the National AED Organization.

Shortly after TCU moved to Fort Worth in the early 1900s, Pre-Health and Science Societies were commonplace on TCU's campus. The Texas Zeta Chapter of AED can most directly be traced to the TCU Premed/Predent Honor Society which was formed in 1975 with Dr. Manfred Reinecke as its faculty advisor. The society expanded to the point that, in 1978, a committee was formed to petition for affiliation with the national AED organization. AED approved the petition, and on April 20, 1979, the Texas Zeta Chapter of AED was established at TCU with the initiation of 31 active members, three active alumni, and five honorary members. Dr. Reinecke served as the faculty advisor until 1991 and was succeeded by Dr. Phil Hartman. In addition, Dr. Reinecke served as a Regional Director to the national organization, a position to which Dr. Hartman was also elected in 2008. Dr. Hartman stepped down as chapter advisor in 2013 and Dr. Matt Chumchal, Dr. Shauna McGillivray, and Jill Duncan currently serve as Chapter Advisors to Texas Zeta.

The national AED office moved to TCU in 2010. Serving the entire society, it is staffed by two employees and is situated in Winton Scoll Hall, right around the corner from the TCU Pre-Health Professions office.

Watch the video: TCU Campus Tour