History of SS44 - History

History of SS44 - History



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S-44

(SS-155: dp. 850 (surf.), 1,126 (subm.), 1. 225'3" b. 20'8", dr. 16' (mean), s. 14.5 k. (surf.), 11 k (subm.), cpl. 42; a. 1 4", 4 21" tt.; cl. S-42)

S-44 (SS-155) was laid down on 19 February 1921 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Quincy, Mass.; launched on 27 October 1923; sponsored by Mrs. H. E. Grieshaber; and commissioned on 16 February 1925 Lt. A. Bateman in command.

S-44 operated off the New England coast into the summer of 1925. In late August, she departed New London for Panama and, on 5 September, arrived at Coco Solo to join Submarine Division (SubDiv) 19. With that division, she conducted training exercises, participated in fleet exercises and joint Army-Navy maneuvers, and made good will visits to various Caribbean and Pacific, Latin American ports until the spring of 1927. From that time to December 1930, she operated out of San Diego with her division, interrupting exercises off southern California twice for fleet problems in Hawaiian waters.

In December 1930, the S-boat was transferred to Hawaii where her division, now SubDiv 11, was home ported for four years. The boats then returned to San Diego; and, in 1937, they were shifted back to Coco Solo.

In the spring of 1941, as American involvement in World War II increased, the Panama S boats were ordered back to the east coast for overhaul. With S-42 and S-46, S-44 proceeded to New London and thence, in November, to Philadelphia where the work was done.

Trials took S-44 into the new year, 1942; and, on 7 January, she got underway to return to Panama. Arriving on the 16th, she departed Balboa on the 24th with S-21, S-26, and S-28 to conduct a security patrol in the western approaches to the canal. Within a few hours, however, she was engaged in rescue operations for S-26 which had been rammed and sunk by PC-460.

From Panama, the division, now SubDiv 53, was ordered to the southwest Pacific. Starting across the Pacific in early March, the boats reached Brisbane in mid-April, and within ten days, S-44 was underway on her first war patrol. She cleared Moreton Bay on 24 April. Three days later, her port engine went out of commission, but, 36 hours of hard work and ingenuity put it back in operation. On the 29th, she began running submerged during the day and surfacing at night to recharge batteries and allow fresh air into the unairconditioned boat. By 2 May, she was in her patrol area, New Britain-New Ireland waters. Six days later, she sighted a ship through a haze of rain, fired two torpedoes, missed, and attempted to close for another attempt. The surface ship soon outdistanced her. The next afternoon, she attempted to close a destroyer, east of Adler Bay, but was again easily outrun. On the 10th, off Cape St. George, she closed another target but was sighted and attacked.

In late afternoon of the 12th, 15 miles from the cape, she sighted a merchantman and a trawler escort. For the first time, the weather, her position, and the target's course were in her favor. She fired four torpedoes, scored with two, then submerged. Shoei Maru, a salvage vessel of over 5,000 tons went under. Her escort went after S-44 and delivered sixteen or more depth charges, none of which was close. On the 14th, S-44 headed home, arriving at Brisbane on the 23d.

Overhaul followed, and, on 7 June, she again moved out of Moreton Bay on a course for the Solomons. Within the week, she was on patrol off Guadalcanal, operating from that island to Savo and to Florida. A few days later, she shifted south of Guadalcanal and on the 21st, sent the converted gunboat, Keijo Maru, to the bottom. The force of the explosion, the rain of debris, and the appearance and attack of a Japanese ASW plane forced S-44 down. At 1415, S 44 fired her torpedoes at the gunboat. At 1418, the enemy plane dropped a bomb which exploded close enough to bend the holding latch to the conning tower, allowing in 30 gallons of sea water, damaging the depth gauges gyro-compass, and ice machine, and starting leaks. Her No. 1 periscope was thought to be damaged; but, when the submarine surfaced for repairs, a Japanese seaman's coat was found wrapped around its head.

Three days later, S-44 was in Lunga Roads. On the 26th, poor weather set in and blanketed the area until the S-boat turned for home. She departed her patrol area on the 29th and arrived back in Moreton Bay on 5 July.

S-44 departed Brisbane again on 24 July. Cloudy weather, with squalls, set in. On the 31st, she commenced patrolling in the Rabaul-Tulagi shipping lanes. The next day, she sighted a convoy off Cape St. George, but heavy swells hindered depth control and speed, and precluded her attacking the convoy.

From Cape St. George, S-44 moved up the east coast of New Ireland to North Cape and Kavieng, where she waited.

On 7 August, the Allied offensive opened with landings on the beaches of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, Gavutu, and Florida islands. On 9 August, off Savo Island, Cruiser Division 6 of the Imperial Japanese Navy inflicted one of the worst defeats of the war on Allied surface ships. The next morning, the victorious cruisers neared Kavieng.

At 0750, S-44 sighted the formation, four heavy cruisers, their track less than 900 yards away. At 0806, she fired four torpedoes at the rear ship, only 700 yards away. By 0808, all four torpedoes had exploded; Kako was sinking, and S-44 had begun her escape. By 0812, Japanese destroyers had started depth charging, without success.

Three days later, S-44 was again fighting heavy swells. Her damaged bow planes required three hours to rig, after which they remained out. On the 23d, she moored at Brisbane.

On 17 September, S-44 began her 4th war patrol. The following day, a hydrogen fire blazed in her forward battery compartment, but was extinguished in three minutes. On the 22d, she began surfacing only at night, and, two days later, she assumed patrol operations off New Georgia to intercept Japan's Faisi-Guadalcanal supply line. During the patrol, her hunting was hindered by Japanese aerial and surface antisubmarine patrols and her own operational capabilities, which were further limited by material defects and damage inflicted during depth chargings.

On the morning of 4 October, she damaged a destroyer, then survived an intensive depth charge attack with seemingly minor damage. The next day, however when she submerged, the submarine began taking on water. She surfaced, made repairs on the high induction valves, then submerged to 50 feet. Leaks were found in her motor room and torpedo room flappers. The latter were jacked shut, but the former continued spraying water onto both motors. Within an hour, four Japanese destroyers had moved into the area. S-44 went to 70 feet. The leak worsened. The motors were covered in canvas and sheet rubber and the crew waited for the destroyers to pass over her position. As they disappeared, S-44 moved up to 55 feet and repairs were made on the flapper. That night, further repairs were made while the ship was surfaced off Santa Isabel Island; and, by midnight, the S-boat was en route back to her patrol area. On the 7th, bad weather set in, and, on the 8th, she departed the area, arriving in Moreton Bay on the 14th.

A month later, S-44 departed Brisbane and headed back to the United States. In early January 1943, she transited the Panama Canal, then moved across the Caribbean and up the Atlantic seaboard to Philadelphia. There, from April to June, she underwent overhaul; and, in July, she retransited the Canal en route to San Diego and the Aleutians.

She arrived at Dutch Harbor on 16 September. On the 26th, she departed Attu on her last war patrol. One day out, while en route to her operating area in the northern Kurils, she was spotted and attacked by a Japanese patrol plane. Suffering no damage, she continued west. On the night of 7 October, she made radar contact with a "small merchantman" and closed in for a surface attack. Several hundred yards from the target, her deck gun fired and was answered by a salvo. The "small merchantman" was a destroyer. The order to dive was given, but S-44 failed to submerge. She took several hits—in the control room, in the forward battery room, and elsewhere.

S-44 was ordered abandoned. A pillow case was put up from the forward battery room hatch as a flag of surrender, but the shelling continued.

Possibly eight men escaped from the submarine as she went down. Two, Chief Torpedoman's Mate Ernest A. Duva and Radioman Third Class William F. Whitemore, were picked up by the destroyer. Taken initially to Paramushiro, then to the Naval Interrogation Camp at Ofuna, the two submariners spent the last year of World War II working in the Ashio copper mines. They were repatriated by the Allies at the end of the war.

S-44 earned 2 battle stars during World War II.


Ruger's New Super Blackhawk .44 Magnum Is Simply Fierce

In the world of large caliber handguns, the most popular and powerful caliber by far is .44 Remington Magnum.

Also known as .44 Magnum, it requires a stout, equally powerful pistol or even carbine to shoot it. One gun up to the task is the Ruger Super Blackhawk, a single action revolver that combines the reliability and simplicity of a revolver with the energy of the famous magnum cartridge.

The .44 Remington Magnum cartridge was a progressive development of the .44 Special round. The .44 Special round, used in larger revolvers, was the rough equivalent to .45 ACP in semi-automatic pistols, particularly the M1911A1 in U.S. military service. Both were subsonic rounds with a typical energy load of 300 to 400 foot-pounds.

Noted gun enthusiast and writer Elmer Keith took the .44 Special round and through extensive testing supercharged it to new heights. The resulting .44 Remington Magnum starts at 741 foot-pounds and can achieve up to 1,400 foot-pounds of force, depending on the particulars of the load. This opened up a brand new frontier of powerful big bore revolvers suitable not only for target shooting but for taking on big game, including deer, bear, and other North American animals.

Although Smith & Wesson and Remington were persuaded to get behind the new round, the first revolver actually brought to market was from Sturm Ruger. Ruger was the first to ship a .44 Magnum round with its new Blackhawk revolver, upscaled from an existing .357 Magnum revolver frame. The revolver debuted in November 1956 at the price of $96—approximately $897 dollars in 2019 prices and just seventy dollars more than today’s suggested retail price for what is in many respects the same gun.

Today’s version, the New Model Super Blackhawk, is a revolver with an Old West design. The grip, frame, barrel and sights all resemble the Colt Single Action Army revolver, one of the most famous firearms in American history and a staple of western films. The New Model Super Blackhawk even comes in a so-called “Bisley” version, a takeoff on the Colt Bisley, a Single Action Army with a low hammer for competitive target practice.

A big bore handgun like the New Model Super Blackhawk needs to be strong to inspire user confidence. Unlike smaller high-capacity autoloading pistols, the gun is made entirely from steel. This is in turn reflected in the revolver’s weight: the Super Blackhawk, with a 7.5-inch barrel, weighs 48 ounces—or three pounds—unloaded. A version with a 10.5-inch barrel weighs 55 ounces. A full load of six rounds in the cylinder adds another three ounces.

The New Model Super Blackhawk is not a small gun. In addition to barrel length, the pistol’s length is also dictated by the length of the cartridge, which has an overall length of 1.61 inches. The shortest version, with a 3.75-inch barrel, is approximately 10.5 inches long. The more popular 7.5-inch model is 13.38 inches long, and the largest, with a 10.5-inch long barrel, is a massive 16.38 inches. The revolver is sold as a blued model with light colored hardwood grips, a satin stainless model with dark colored hardwood grips, and a distributor’s special with a western-style case hardened finish.

The Blackhawk is a single action pistol, meaning the hammer needs cocking before it can fire. Although this slows down reaction time, especially in hunting situations with large, dangerous game, it does result in a slightly lighter handgun (compared to comparable double action revolvers) and a trigger pull of just 3.75 pounds. This can help such the pistol stay on target despite very heavy recoil. A similar model, the Ruger Redhawk, is a double action revolver.

The Ruger New Model Super Blackhawk revolver mixes tradition and power, a design that harkens back to the days of America’s westward expansion while shooting one of the newest pistol calibers on the market. Although not for everyone, the .44 Magnum pistol has many applications, from target shooting to big game hunting. It, and handguns like it, will continue to fill a niche for a long time to come.

Kyle Mizokami is a writer based in San Francisco who has appeared in The Diplomat, Foreign Policy, War is Boring and The Daily Beast. In 2009 he co-founded the defense and security blog Japan Security Watch.


2 Materials and methods

2.1 Bacterial strains and plasmids

The strains and plasmids used in this study are described in Table 1. Wild-type S. abortusovis SS44 [ 5] was isolated from the fetal tissue of a sheep, mouse-passaged, and stored at −70°C. TT2251 is S. typhimurium carrying a Tn10 insertion in the virulence plasmid at an unknown position that does not affect virulence. Plasmid pLL6 is a temperature-sensitive (42°C) for replication, non-self-transferable, kanamycin-resistant plasmid of 55 kb previously used to construct plasmid-cured derivatives of S. typhimurium LT2 [ 9].

Bacterial strains and plasmids

Strain or plasmid Description Reference or source
S. abortusovis
SS44 wild-type [ 5]
SU40 Plasmid-cured derivative of SS44 this study
SSM56 spvR23::Tn5 from UF006 this study
SU60 ΔspvRABCD::tet from UF109 this study
S. typhimurium
χ3456 SR-11, wild-type [ 1]
TT2251 LT-2, zzc69::Tn10, tet r B.A.D. Stocker
χ3477 LT-2, galE, rough LPS [ 15]
UF006 spvR23::Tn5, kan r [ 10]
UF109 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r P.A. Gulig
UF110 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r [ 11]
Plasmids
pLL6 temperature-sensitive, kan r [ 9]
pGTRO61 carries S. typhimurium spvRABCD and orfE, amp r [ 14]
Strain or plasmid Description Reference or source
S. abortusovis
SS44 wild-type [ 5]
SU40 Plasmid-cured derivative of SS44 this study
SSM56 spvR23::Tn5 from UF006 this study
SU60 ΔspvRABCD::tet from UF109 this study
S. typhimurium
χ3456 SR-11, wild-type [ 1]
TT2251 LT-2, zzc69::Tn10, tet r B.A.D. Stocker
χ3477 LT-2, galE, rough LPS [ 15]
UF006 spvR23::Tn5, kan r [ 10]
UF109 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r P.A. Gulig
UF110 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r [ 11]
Plasmids
pLL6 temperature-sensitive, kan r [ 9]
pGTRO61 carries S. typhimurium spvRABCD and orfE, amp r [ 14]

Bacterial strains and plasmids

Strain or plasmid Description Reference or source
S. abortusovis
SS44 wild-type [ 5]
SU40 Plasmid-cured derivative of SS44 this study
SSM56 spvR23::Tn5 from UF006 this study
SU60 ΔspvRABCD::tet from UF109 this study
S. typhimurium
χ3456 SR-11, wild-type [ 1]
TT2251 LT-2, zzc69::Tn10, tet r B.A.D. Stocker
χ3477 LT-2, galE, rough LPS [ 15]
UF006 spvR23::Tn5, kan r [ 10]
UF109 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r P.A. Gulig
UF110 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r [ 11]
Plasmids
pLL6 temperature-sensitive, kan r [ 9]
pGTRO61 carries S. typhimurium spvRABCD and orfE, amp r [ 14]
Strain or plasmid Description Reference or source
S. abortusovis
SS44 wild-type [ 5]
SU40 Plasmid-cured derivative of SS44 this study
SSM56 spvR23::Tn5 from UF006 this study
SU60 ΔspvRABCD::tet from UF109 this study
S. typhimurium
χ3456 SR-11, wild-type [ 1]
TT2251 LT-2, zzc69::Tn10, tet r B.A.D. Stocker
χ3477 LT-2, galE, rough LPS [ 15]
UF006 spvR23::Tn5, kan r [ 10]
UF109 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r P.A. Gulig
UF110 ΔspvRABCD::tet, tet r [ 11]
Plasmids
pLL6 temperature-sensitive, kan r [ 9]
pGTRO61 carries S. typhimurium spvRABCD and orfE, amp r [ 14]

2.2 Curing S. abortusovis SS44 of the virulence plasmid and mutagenesis of the spv genes

Plasmid pLL6 encoding kanamycin resistance was introduced into S. abortusovis SS44 by electroporation. An isolated kanamycin-resistant colony was selected at random and subjected to three passages in broth culture with 50 μg ml −1 of kanamycin at 30°C to enable displacement of the resident plasmid (the virulence plasmid and pLL6 are incompatible). Because the sizes of the two plasmids were nearly identical, we could not screen for loss of the resident plasmid by electrophoretic analysis. We therefore proceeded to eliminate pLL6 and examine for loss of both plasmids at the same time. After plating at 30°C on kanamycin, 10 colonies were selected at random and grown in broth without antibiotic at 42°C to cause the loss of the temperature-sensitive pLL6. A dilution was then plated out on non-selective plates at 42°C, and five isolate colonies were randomly chosen to carry out rapid minilysate plasmid extractions. Four of the five colonies were kanamycin-sensitive and contained no plasmid DNA by electrophoretic analysis.

DNA was transferred into smooth salmonellae by transduction with phage P22HTint. spvR::Tn5 S. abortusovis mutant SSM56 was obtained by transduction of the spvR::Tn5 allele from S. typhimurium UF006 [ 10] to S. abortusovis SS44 and selecting for kanamycin-resistant colonies. Similarly, S. abortusovis SU60 was constructed by transduction of the ΔspvRABCD::tet mutation from S. typhimurium UF109 (Gulig, unpublished results), which is a precursor strain of S. typhimurium UF110 [ 11], into SS44 using P22 phage. The virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium UF109 contains a deletion of a 6.3-kb ClaI fragment encoding the spvRABCD′ genes replaced by a tetracycline marker (ΔspvRABCD::tet).

2.3 Mouse infections

Groups of five female BALB/c mice 6–8 weeks of age (specific-pathogen-free) were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) or orally (p.o.) as previously described [ 1]. In specific experiments, following p.o. inoculation of mice, Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen were examined for colony-forming units (CFU) as described by Gulig and Doyle [ 4]. Briefly, mice were inoculated p.o. with ∼1×10 8 CFU of S. abortusovis, and 5 days later, Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleens were removed, homogenized in glass tissue homogenizers with phosphate-buffered saline, and plated to enumerate CFU.


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AVAILABLE ON PASADENA DIGITAL HISTORY WEBSITE

Self-evaluation, follow-up report

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Policies, Agendas and Meetings

See Board of Trustees website

Policy, handbook, meetings, committees, etc.

Printed materials and metals

Pasadena High School and Pasadena

ASB Cabinet and committees

Association of Black Employees and Asian American Association

Printed materials, photographs and VHS

History, Bookstore: the past, present and future, Procedures

Leslie Thompson, Bookstore manager

Yes-partial. There are photographs of the bookstore staff dating back to the 1920s which are on the PDHC site.

AD156 - AD202, AD 206 and AD 421 - AD423.

Beginning in 2008 these are now posted on the campus website at https://pasadena.edu/business-administrative-services/fiscal-services/budget.php

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Printed materials from department

California Federation of Teachers

Policies and other printed materials

Julio Herta (President of ISSU-CFT)

Career and Technical Education

Handbooks and miscellaneous printed material

Yes-partial limited to photographs

Career/Job Placement Center

Variety of printed materials

Art nights, List of donors, etc.

The printed materials include brochures, guides and photographs

Variety of printed materials

Yes-partial. There are a number of photographs which are on the PDHC site.

General policies, handbook, salary table, Classified Senate, etc. printed materials

History, dress code, commencement addresses including transcript of commencement address by Dr. Jack Scott.

Yes-partial. There are a number of photographs which are on the PDHC site.

Desert Campus was a continuation of the Civil Aeronautics Administration training given to civilians. Dr. E. Howard Floyd and Leland McAuley set up PJC's Desert Campus in Baker

Yearbooks also mentioned in the 75 th Anniversary Book

Disabled Student Programs and Services

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Annual program plan, online television courses

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AD224 - AD225, AD255 - AD295

PCC Directories from 1968-2008 are available on the PDHC at:

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Printed materials, newspaper clippings, and plans

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History of Pasadena City Schools.

Board of Education, policies, curriculum, reports, publications, statistics, surveys, teacher handbook

Pasadena City Schools, Board of Education.

History of Pasadena Junior College.

History of the community or junior college movement in California.

Publications on establishment, role, goals and functions of junior colleges

W. Ewing, J.W. Harbeson, and J.A. Sexon

History of Pasadena Junior College. Physical Education

1932-1934 Tennis tournament, reports. Includes text documents and newspaper clippings.

Physical Education department. Chadil, Bob

History of Pasadena Junior College. Reunions

25th, 40th, 50th and 75th anniversaries. Oral history project, new buildings, Reunions (classes of 1904, 1925, 1930s-1960s)

H76 - H84, H90, H92, H94 - H98

Pasadena City College Reunion Committee. William Grainger, Mary Ann Laun

Dramatic Club, Player's Guild, Ms Keppie's Plays, programs, scrapbooks, etc.

Historical photographs, postcards, and album with PHS students' autographs

Print documents, photos, VHS.

Mel Heflinger, Oscar Chavez, Frank Kilmer

PHS, PJC buildings. Print documents, photos and plans

Office of the Research Director

History of PJC. Annual Reports

Annual reports from various departments, fact finding committees, statistics, curriculum surveys

PJC/PCC Academic departments and steering committees

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Policies, Guide to the Clubs and Organizations on Campus through the years which includes digital images of their membership pins.

Name change in 1999 to Robinson Stadium

Locked cases. Pageant yearbook, 1958, pg 236.

General policies and procedures, Manager's handbook, Curriculum & instruction, Program review

Programs, handbooks, forums, history, services for high school students, media services including campus radio station and KPCC Agreement between PACCD and ISSU.

Yes-partial, primarily photographs

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"Problems faced in the early history of Pasadena Junior College"

History of PJC H55, Locked Cabinets Archive 378.1543 P 5-28

Kinesiology, Health and Athletics

Annual reports, Court of Champions, Hall of Fame, etc. Includes newspaper clippings from the mid-centry as well as scrapbooks and printed materials like game programs.

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Policy, Constitution, handbook, etc.

Mascots at Pasadena City College

Bulldog as PHS/PJC mascoct. Lancer as PCC mascot.

The Item Annual. PHS June 1916 and June 1925.

Pasadena Chronicle, 9/14/2918, and the PCC Courier, 11/24/1954.

Yes. The Item has been completely digitized.

Academic, Educational, Environmental impact, Construction Act

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Research reports, unit plans, etc.

Occupational/Adult Training Center

Order of Mast and Dagger Honorary organization

History, rosters, tapping ceremonies, membership criteria, many photo albums.

Parent Teacher Student Association

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The Pasadena Academy under the direction of M.M. Parker, Throop University, California Institute of Technology

Pasadena: It's early years by Henry Page, Los Angeles, Ca 1964.

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Institution Planning and Research Office

Pasadena College (1949-1973) is now Point Loma Nazarene University in San Diego. There is no affiliation between PCC and Pasadena College. Also known as:Pacific Bible College and Nazarene University.

Performing and Communication Arts

History of the Music Department, Unit Plan, programs. Bulldog and Lancer Band, Paul Kilian, Tournament of roses.


History of SS44 - History

We had our 341 meeting on Wednesday and our trustee filed a trustee report of no distribution today that basically says that ther is no property available for distribution from the estate. And he requests to be discharged from further duties as trustee. Claims scheduled to be discharged without payment.

This is good news right? We just wait out the 60 days and should get our discharge?

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The threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogenic Sporothrix species

Sporotrichosis is a neglected subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals acquired by traumatic inoculation of soil and plant material (classical route) contaminated with infectious propagules of the pathogen or being bitten/scratched by infected cats (alternative route). Within a genus composed of 53 species displaying an essentially environmental core, there are only a few members which have considerable impacts on human or animal health. Infections are typically caused by S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii or S. globosa. Rare mammal pathogens include members of the S. pallida and S. stenocereus complexes. To illustrate the tremendous impact of emerging zoonotic sporotrichosis on public health, we discuss the main features of the expanding epidemics driven by S. brasiliensis in cats and humans. The cat entry in the transmission chain of sporotrichosis, causing epizooties (cat–cat) or zoonosis (cat–human), has contributed to the definition of new paradigms in Sporothrix transmission, reaching epidemic levels, making the disease a serious public health problem. Indeed, S. brasiliensis infection in humans and animals is likely to become even more important in the future, with projections of its expansion in biogeographic domains and host range, as well as greater virulence in mammals. Therefore, lessons from a long-standing outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro about the source and distribution of the etiological agents among outbreak areas can be used to create better control and prevention plans and increase awareness of sporotrichosis as a serious emerging zoonotic disease.

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Ease of Use

Singer 44S lives up to the heavy duty tag pretty well. The machine is pretty sturdy. It has a nice variety of utility and decorative stitches. The machine performs admirably on multiple layers of heavy-duty fabrics. As many as 6 layers of denim is a walk in the park for this machine. The machine has good beginner friendly features on board. Automatic needle threader, drop-in bobbin and 1-step buttonhole are some of them. The machines seems to have an excellent feed mechanism. There are no issues like skipped stitches or bobbin jamming. The tension seems to be perfect most of the time. The machine is durable as well. It has the capability to serve you long.


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MATERIAL AND METHODS

The specimen described herein, SAM-PK-K10369 (in the collections of the Iziko: South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa), consists of a complete, laterally compressed skull, a partially preserved axis and third cervical vertebra, and articulated femur, tibia and fibula. Institutional abbreviations and specimens of the therocephalians and basal cynodonts studied for comparative purposes are presented in Appendices 1 and 2, respectively.

A cladistic analysis using the program TNT ( Goloboff, Farris & Nixon, 2003) was performed to determine the phylogenetic position of Charassognathus. A data matrix was constructed for 59 cranio-dental characters and 18 theriodont taxa. Cyonosaurus, ‘one of the rare gorgonopsian skulls to have been thoroughly studied’ ( Sigogneau-Russell, 1989: 83), was used to root the cladograms. In addition to ten cynodont taxa, seven therocephalian taxa were included in the analysis, as Therocephalia is a sister group of the Cynodontia. A heuristic search was performed with all characters having equal weights. This search consisted of ten random addition sequences (ten Wagner trees randomizing the order of the terminals) and tree-bisection-reconnection swapping, storing ten trees per replication. The run was performed with collapsing rule one ( Coddington & Scharff, 1994), which collapses branches with ambiguous support. Increasing the number of replicates did not change the result obtained. A second analysis was performed with similar settings, but using implied weights ( Goloboff, 1993). The weighting was made by means of a constant of concavity K. A possible outcome is the decrease in the number of most parsimonious trees by reducing the influence of homoplastic characters. Characters showing many extra steps in the most parsimonious trees are thus down-weighted in relation to the characters that better fit those trees. Analyses were performed with the constant of concavity set at intermediate and low values.

Material examined and literature consulted for each taxon included in the cladistic analysis is presented in Appendix 2, the list of characters and data matrix in Appendix 3, and unambiguous synapomorphies for nodes of the most parsimonious tree obtained with implied weights are presented in Appendix 4.


Solvency II: third-country insurance and pure reinsurance branches

This supervisory statement is addressed to non-EEA insurance undertakings that have a UK branch (third-country branch undertakings). This includes non-EEA insurance undertakings that have a UK branch that solely carries out reinsurance activities (a third-country pure reinsurance branch). The statement replaces Supervisory Statement 10/15 ‘Solvency II: third-country branches’. It should be read alongside the Third Country Branches Part of the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) Rulebook, any other rules in the PRA Rulebook that apply to third-country branch undertakings, the relevant European legislation, the European Insurance and Occupational Pension Authority‘s (EIOPA) third-country branches Guidelines (herein referred to as “the EIOPA Branch Guidelines”) and the relevant provisions of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FSMA). It sets out the PRA’s expectations of third-country branch undertakings.

This statement does not apply to Swiss General Insurers, as defined in the PRA Rulebook, to which different requirements apply pursuant to the Swiss Treaty Agreement (No. 91/370/EEC).

This statement expands on the PRA’s general approach to supervision as set out in its insurance approach document. By clearly and consistently explaining its expectations of firms in relation to the particular areas addressed, the PRA seeks to advance its statutory objectives of ensuring the safety and soundness of the firms it regulates, and contributing to securing an appropriate degree of protection for policyholders. This statement was subject to public consultation in Consultation Paper 31/15 in August 2015, (see Related links) and reflects the feedback received by the PRA.


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